Turquoise Energy

introduced below...
Electric Transport
Electric Hubcap/Caik/Weel Motor system - Unipolar BLDC motors.
Electric Caik Outboard.
Variable Torque Converter Transmission.

Social Issues related to Energy

Our Solar System: Living Titan

Ground Effect Vehicle
Study of new concepts with novel designs for a stable, rugged and reliable ground effect craft was undertaken starting in 2017. In 2019 and 2020 construction of a 1/4 scale radio controlled model is being undertaken.
   Such a vehicle, with the speed of a light aircraft but the versatility of a seaworthy marine vessel and very low fuel usage, could really open up areas which are poorly accessible by land such as scattered islands and mountainous coastlines.
   Power for the model is two 90mm ducted fan "jet" motors, left and right. Owing to lower fuel usage than light aircraft, several electric ducted fans are expected to power a full size vehicle as well.


is a family of simple, efficient (~95% peak) axial flux 'pancake' motors plus solid state motor controllers, developed with a focus on electric transport applications but available for various purposes.
   From 2008 and on into 2014 the motors went from "gosh it works!" innovative to highly efficient to safe and reliable.

   Bodies are molded from polypropylene-epoxy, a seemingly overlooked composite that is stronger and lighter than fiberglass.
Some rough specs for the Electric Caik/Electric Hubcap/Electric Weel motors are: 4.8/7.2/19.2 KW, 24/36/48 V, 0-200 A (x2 motor controllers for Weel), 0-3000/-2000/-700 RPM, 9/11/28" OD, all 4-5" thick, 15/30/90 pounds. All motor sizes and styles mount the same individually made toroidal donut coils and magnets: 6/9/24 coils and 4/6/16 magnet poles.

   From 2015 new ideas in permanent magnet assisted reluctance motor appeared that promise to be superior to most any other type of transport motor, with unparalleled current reductions and very high RPMs that should make variable transmissions unnecessary. Some of the techniques  and components created for the Electric Hubcap series are applicable to this new and better type. A first test motor with controller has been created, but further development is required.


The 2 KW Electric Caik is the smallest motor of the family. It fits in this Honda 7.5 outboard, and has taken the boat out on the ocean. So far (fall 2014), this has been the only really successful transport application of the motors. The torque of the Electric Weel motor, the largest (inside of stator end cover at left), is immense owing to all the motive elements being at the outside of a 26" flat rotor.


The Electric Hubcap drive motor was originally conceived as an add-on accessory wheel mounted motor to change petroleum vehicles into highly efficient plug-in electric hybrids to run on batteries recharged at home. The gas engine would be started and engaged when the batteries provide insufficient range. Since car wheels are too low an RPM and cars too heavy to allow a wheel mounted motor to develop sufficient power with direct drive, the motors must be 'geared down'. Various attempts to create a suitable magnetic or mechanical variable torque converter failed until in 2012 it was realized that using a planetary gear and allowing one element to slip under tension increases the gear reduction between the other two elements by any desired amount. This allows high torque from a stop yet low RPMs at highway speeds. Experiments showed that the mechanism only works once the gears are in motion, so either a big flyweel is needed to get the car going as the motor slows, or a clutch allows the gears to turn while the car is stopped. Assembly of such a transmission with a low RPM centrifugal clutch is underway as of fall 2014.

Sustainability and Energy Social Issues

The roadblocks for moving to friendly, sustainable energy and other sustainable systems incorporating the seven core values of social sustainability: LIFE, quality of life, provision for growth, equality, empathy, compassion and love for humanity (see 7CoreValues.org), are largely social in nature, and hence social considerations are inseparable from any discussion of green energy. In the "In Passing" section of various newsletters, issues are discussed such as our antiquated and unevolving 'dead end' institutions and increasing usurpation of control of them by self-serving manipulative, unbalanced and socially insensitive personalities (AKA gangsters and banksters), the coming financial, economic and population collapse, the corrupt patent system, the need for a Department of Progress to provide for ongoing evolution of governmental institutions, and many other topics. (See HandsOnDemocracy.org )

introduced below...
Energy Storage
New Chemistry Batteries Ni-Mn & Ni-Ni,
Lead-Acid Battery Renewal,
Large Ni-MH Batteries from "D" Dry Cells.

Open Loop Air Heat Pumping
Or, how to heat a house almost for free!

Energy Production
Ocean Wave Power, Nanocrystalline titanium borosilicate transmissive glaze for solar panels, VAWT.s, Thermoelectric Generators, Floating Hydro, HE Rays, Magnet Machines.

Other Green Energy Projects/Products
Low voltage Wiring for "off-grid" installations, Better LED Lighting (flat panel - globe - greenhouse), Thermoelectric (Peltier module) refrigeration and heat pumping.

The Turquoise Battery project

aims to develop good, economical batteries with high energy density for electrical transportation use. Many novel techniques and chemistries have been explored. The two selected for potential commercial development use doped graphite current collectors and safer potassium chloride salt electrolyte with less extreme alkaline pH.
   In both types, the positive electrode's nickel manganate chemistry is an improvement over traditional nickel chemistry, and the lower pH raises its voltage. The same less extreme alkaline pH also enables both new negative electrode chemistries.    In the "Ni-Mn" chemistry the lower pH and two trace additives allows a -1.5 volt manganese negative electrode to hold its charge, which has never been accomplished before. The two high voltage electrodes together give the NiMn cell the highest voltage of any water based battery cell, almost 2.5 volts, the potential cycle life is "forever", and the energy density is potentially higher than today's lithium-ion cells -- with "dirt cheap" ingredients. Presently, problems of high self discharge and low current capacity remain to be overcome.
   The "NiNi" chemistry is probably equivalent to "NiMH" with perhaps slightly lower voltage, and good current capacity, but again with no deterioration foreseen over any number of charge-discharge cycles. Again the ability to use nickel in the negative electrode depends on the lower pH of the electrolyte.
   In 2018 'ethaline' DES and potassium oxalate made for an apparently working cell, and eliminating graphite from the "+" electrode by coating it with a conductive film of osmium doped acetaldehyde eliminated the self discharge.

Extend the life of lead-acid batteries: Battery Renewal
New batteries can last 3 or 4 times longer simply by adding sodium sulfate salt to the acid. "Worn out" batteries can often be given a new life by sodium sulfate renewal treatment and pulse charging.

Open Loop Air Heat Pumping

   A new concept for 2020, a passive outdoor heat exchanger provides most of the temperature "lift", while the air compressor and radiator system only adds a few degrees, making possible fantastic coefficients of performance almost regardless of outdoor temperature - 1000 watts of heat for 100 watts of electricity is just a starting point!

Generating Power

   Various designs to extract more power from flowing water, waves and wind are described in Turquoise Energy News newsletters.

Nanocrystalline titanium oxide borosilicate glaze for solar cells
Frit of this glass would be sprinkled onto the cover glaze, which is then re-fired enough to melt the frit into little pebbly lenses on the surface, which would then reflect much less light and better refract it downward into the light sensitive components.
   These could potentially up the daily solar energy capture of solar cells by 25% or more by capturing more light from more oblique angles.

Other Green Energy Projects & Products

Low Voltage House Wiring Systems
Present 120/240 VAC wiring systems are useful, but renewable energy, "off-grid" systems, motor homes and boats, and the proliferation of low voltage electronic devices seems to call for standardized low voltage DC wiring systems, especially 12 VDC systems. To this end main panels, devices and circuits therefor, and standardized 12 VDC plugs and sockets are under development.
The 12 Volt plugs, sockets, wall plates for standard electrical boxes, and click-lock plugs and sockets are titled "CAT Standard". They are Connectors based on standard AT automotive fuses, with the "+" pin turned sideways.

LED Lighting LED Indoor Garden
The old "light bulb" format is not very suitable for low voltage solid state LED lighting. From 2011 diffused globe lighting was produced (base shown), but proved uneconomical as made.
Flat panel LED lights were prototyped which take up a low profile and give more even light. However the low cost of commercial LED lighting bulbs and fixtures led to setting the project aside in about 2015.

For 2018 a new LED Indoor Garden product idea is being tested, successfully growing lettuce and other greens in winter.