Turquoise Energy Newsletter #145 - June 2020
Turquoise Energy News #145
covering June 2020 (Posted July 4th 2020 AD / 25 AI - After Internet)
Lawnhill BC Canada - by Craig Carmichael

www.TurquoiseEnergy.com = www.ElectricCaik.com = www.ElectricHubcap.com

Month In "Brief" (Project Summaries etc.)
 - Bugs Ugh! - Building a Wall - Ground Effect Craft: a little more work - Lithium Battery Charging - A Thought about Open Loop Air Heat Pumping (OLAHP) - Electric Transport Infrastructure is Improving - Compressed Air Locomotives

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics, editorial comments & opinionated rants)
  - Gardening and Chickens - Bug Bite Rash - Food, Economic, Population and Disease Woes "Medley" - Wall Building Pictures - Small Thots - ESD

- Detailed Project Reports -
Electric Transport - Electric Hubcap Motor Systems
* Miles Truck: 5:1 Planetary Gear replacing 40 pound transmission (Why isn't this finished?)
* 'Electric Hubcap' Unipolar Motors: "Outrunner" Radial Flux Design?
* Ground Effect Vehicle - working on the model: Sigh, battery issues!

Other "Green" Electric Equipment Projects - No Reports

Electricity Generation
* My Solar Power System:
 - New Panel Connected & Heavier, Shorter Wire improvement - Monthly Solar Production log et cetera - Notes.

Electricity Storage
* Turquoise Battery Project (NiMnOx-Zn in Mixed Alkali-Salt electrolyte) - No Report

June in Brief

   Once again I seemed to have a hard time getting around to energy projects. For one thing, after almost 3 years I finally built a wall on the windward side of the roof shell covering the travel trailer to keep most of the rain out. Then, there just seem to always be too many other things that need doing, and every time I walk from one place to another, I am distracted by something that needs doing there. The gardens, once planted, as usual seem to get badly neglected but usually need some pressing attention anyway. Everything is usually underwatered. (I bought some sprinkler system components, but haven't got around to hooking them up.)
   And I think I'm spending too much time watching various videos and reading things on line in the evening. One result of all this is a long In Passing section of collected facts and my opinionated opinons, and only a couple of boring "detailed project reports".

   On the 20th I finished framing this end wall and putting up the plywood. This roof over the trailer just might become a dwelling if I ever get to finish it. (More wall pictures in In Passing below)
   Then I took a short break and in talking with my neighbor where he was mowing a lawn, apparently I got badly bit by the dense cloud of "no-see-ums" (midges, gnats?), stirred up by the lawn tractor. They must have hit a critical mass of bites. I got a red itchy rash over my whole body and with 3 sleepless and itchy nights and days, then one more day 'blitzed' from antihistamines I didn't get much of anything done. For anyone interested I wrote it up in several paragraphs in "In Passing". (I seem to do a lot of complaining these days.)

   I did some little bit of work on the ground effect craft. I finished the battery tubes and ran one of the ducted fans. But the lithium (lithium-iron phosphate?) cells, which doubled the whole weight of the model and which I had fully expected would supply adequate current, were disappointing. When I turned the motor on full, the voltage dropped from 23 to 11, with just 33 amps coming out from the two parallel sets of cells - only 16.5 amps per set. It made a lot of wind, but the model didn't slide on the floor. I ordered some specific model aircraft batteries to match the motors. It will be about 1.5 Kg (and I 300$) lighter with those. And have a lot more power. ...and they are supposed arrive in August, when I thought it just needed some assembly now to try it out.
   (I might hook up the present cells and see if I can coax it into motion anyway.)

   Someone pointed out that some things like the canard front of and behind the fans, and the motor wires, will cause drag. Perfectly true but I'll worry about them if it gets moving fast enough and still doesn't fly well. Even after all this time, it's still just a proof of concept model. If it works well, I'll be on to the full size version if I pursue it further on my own. (I'd rather get some support.)

   I also put together one set of the chargers I had envisoned for lithium batteries. In the original plan, each cell in series would have its own charger with a floating output. Then I realized that that was a bit of overkill: if two cells in series were charged together, there was still no chance (besides a cell failure) that one charging first would go over its rated voltage before the second one equalized. (With low current charging, even 3 or 4 cells are okay.)
   I ran into a snag when I couldn't find isolated output DC to DC converters that could be set to the right voltage. They are apparently more difficult to make than non-isolated because of the challenge of voltage feedback for regulation from a floating output voltage, usually using an optical isolator.

   Then I got some "10 amp" adjustable 120 VAC to DC converters and found they had the worst voltage regulation of anything I've seen since the 1970s. (Like, completely unregulated for line, load or temperature, and the slightest touch of the control sent the voltage way up or down.) Charging batteries needs a precise maximum voltage. So then I finally thought I could use those to get the isolation and then a DC to DC converter. Even then they needed a diode at the battery to block discharge when the chargers weren't plugged in.
   Somehow my "simple" lithium charger idea was getting more complicated than just buying a specific multi-cell "balance charger". or (hmm!) several cheap regulated lab power supplies. (That actually might be a good idea!) But I did get one pair made and put it in the Sprint car.

   The result seemed good. Once set up, I set the DC to DC buck converters to about a 6 amp limit (not trusting the crappy AC to DC units for their rated "10 amps") - not a fast charge, but certainly more than a trickle. One of the cells responded by refusing to rise above 2.998 volts. Its mate in the charging was obliged to go up to 3.66 - still well under the 4.2 volt limit, as planned. With more charging the troubled one dropped to 2.98 volts instead of going up. I finally gave up and turned it off. Days later it sat at 2.991 and the other at 3.66.

   Between that and one other cell that died down to zero volts when I left the Miles truck uncharged for a couple of weeks, I seem to have at least two bad 100 amp-hour lithium cells. And I now only have one spare cell, which has an "X" drawn on it - not auspicious.

   I can pull one more 4-cell battery out of the Sprint and still have it work, but I feel like I'm running short of batteries. Perhaps I should get back to work on my own 'everlasting' nickel manganate-zinc cell designs!

A Thought about Open Loop Air Heat Pumping (OLAHP)

   I have an additional perspective based on the experiments earlier this year. As estimated at the times, the first and smallest fridge compressor (~75W) seemed to give not a lot of heat, but had the highest COP at 4 to 5. The larger fridge compressor (~120W) didn't do much better for heat and the COP was lower, maybe 3. The large Makita compressor (920W) output the most heat, but it had the lowest COP, not even 2.
   I had lamented that the first compressor had a very narrow pipe inside, restricting the flow of compressed air. The second one was more free. The Makita moved a lot of air.
   Of course, much of the expectation of high COPs is that the passive outdoor heat exchanger will raise the temperature of the outdoor air much of the way toward room temperature before the compressor uses it. I think my exchanger as built is adequate for the smallest compressor, "underpowered" for the second, and very inadequate for exchanging heat with the high air volume consumed by the Makita. Evidently a larger exchanger, one with more heat exchange surface areas, is needed for house heating. (And of course, the lower the outdoor temperature, the better it needs to be as well.)
   This simple passive component evidently needs very careful design consideration.

   On July 2nd I talked with someone who I might want to work with as a business manager. We came to the tentative conclusion that OLAHP for small spaces might be about the best project to pursue first in a sequence. Providing the simplified "ROVAC" compressor and the outdoor heat exchangers can be made satisfactorily, development is otherwise pretty straightforward, and there would surely be no shortage even of local customers.

Electric Transport Infrastructure is Improving

   As time goes on electric transport infrastructure is gradually improving (except on Haida Gwaii so far). Petro-Canada stations around the country have put (or are putting) in DC fast chargers for those traveling. The price is of course such that they will make a good margin, but if you're traveling across country, anywhere you can stop and charge without having to spend the night is a blessing. And of course it's still a lot cheaper than gasoline.
(Pictures by Tom Sawyer)

   Someone asked me how I was going to charge a full size ground effect vehicle. Good question! They certainly aren't likely to have electric charging stations on wharves any time soon! If one went somewhere, one might have to stay there overnight just because of having to charge at a 120 V, 14 A receptacle.

Compressed Air Locomotives

   I ran across a video about historic compressed air locomotives and their operation. Yes, they really were in use in various places around 1900 including for passenger transport in cities.
   Near the end of the video he mentions Elon Musk's "hyperloop" type air driven transport, and finally the "perpetual motion car" using compressed air (1934). I think the diagram below illustrates my little point from TE News (?)143, about the more complex something is, the harder it is to pick holes in why the perpetual motion won't work.

   While he talks in French really fast (a bit like Hank Green in "Sci Show" etc.) and I couldn't follow most of it, there are diagrams and things many in English, and photos of compressed air locomotives, here and there throughout. I've copied a few below, just because I think the subject is interesting.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5ejsEzvq9g   [En Français,  channel "monsieur bidouille"]

   But I must assume electricity made things lighter, easier and less costly. Metal air tanks are bulky and have an explosion risk. (The new "explosion proof" carbon fiber tanks would be much better, but I assume a rip in a tank could still be deafening to those nearby.)

   Batteries are of course the key to electric transport except on fixed routes where power wires can be strung. Better batteries further improve the value of electric transport technologies. Even where electricity to run motors or charge batteries is generated by 'dirty' power sources, it centralizes the problem instead of having zillions of individual fossil fuel burning machines, making potential solutions simpler and more worth while.

In Passing
(Miscellaneous topics, editorial comments & opinionated rants)

Gardening & Chickens

   I had left one patch of garden by the greenhouse, where I grew potatoes last year, to plant some later crops. I got some things planted but suddenly it was overgrowing with potatoes faster than anything else was growing. I guess it's a potato patch again this year! (Far end, 2nd picture below.) Potatoes seem to grow like weeds around here. Any tiny potato or piece left in the ground is soon a big, healthy potato plant overgrowing whatever else was planted there. Of course, if there's a food scarcity something with calories that grows like a weed, anywhere, is probably a good thing. Millions of Irish couldn't be wrong. At least, until the potato blight.

   The month's produce included asparagus, arugula (which soon went to seed), an egg shaped cabbage as big as any a in grocery store (started in the indoor LED garden last winter), the beginnings of peas in the greenhouse, a couple of good broccolis (and more still growing), a few leaves of lettuce, green onions, and I started digging up some garlic bulbs that were planted last fall with the foliage now dying off. Some of the earliest wheat plantings are starting to form seed heads.

Mice! No, Birds!

   On July 2nd I noted that of some beans I had recently planted in the greenhouse, only one had come up. I thought maybe the seeds were too old. At this time of year, the best growing weeks go by and planting delays may mean no crop. I found some scarlet runner bean seeds and planted them. On the 3rd I looked and found that mice(?) had dug at least some of them up and eaten them.
   I had rats digging up pea and bean seeds when I lived in Victoria. (No crop that year in spite of repeated plantings. I caught on too late why nothing would come up.) I had finally learned to make shallow wire fence mesh "baskets" to put over seeds until they came up. I didn't think they were needed in the greenhouse, but I now replanted the beans and put a couple of those over them. (These bean seeds are 4 years old, too! Will they come up?)

   Then I looked at the peas nearby. Some had been almost ready to eat the day before (if not a week before). Instead I could see that there were a lot of peas gone! I thought it was mice eating them just as they got ripe! No wonder they were "almost ready" for so long. I found chewed open pods both on the plants and on the ground. And in climbing up they were knocking over the plants and breaking the stems. Mice have been a plague around here this year. This wasn't anything I had considered. I've never had anything but deer eat my growing peas before. How does one make a rodent proof greenhouse, and yet let pollinating insects in and out? I would certainly have to tear it down and start over. I pulled up the pea stems and wove them through the support wire. That looked better!
   Then I (again, July 3rd) found a small bird "trapped" in the greenhouse when I went in. And all those pea plants I had just pulled in close to the stucco wire support the previous evening, were eaten through and all their pods were gone! Only peas and pods farther from the supporting wire were left. Arg! It wasn't mice, it was birds! They weren't in there by accident! That actually has happened to me before, in Victoria. The guy at the plant nursery up here said he'd never had trouble with birds. But here it was again: give them a handy place to land, and they chew up your pea plants. I shouldn't have trusted he was right. I suppose that's a main reason people use string "pea netting" instead of wire. A lesson I've now learned twice. I think I'll switch to chicken wire, oriented vertically so there's no horizontal surfaces to land on. I wonder if I can remove the present wire and swap that in? Seems like an unlikely prospect.
   And back in 2017 Jack had mentioned birds plucking out his seeds. Maybe the bean seeds, and the plucked wheat seeds in the new garden in the spring, was the work of these little brown birds, too, and not the mouse plague at all. (In fact, IIRC the wire "baskets" placed over the seeds was Jack's idea, now that I think of it.)
   Apparently we have airborne mice around here!

Slug Fencing

   The slugs got some good quinoa, squash, chard, sunflowers, lupins, beans, corn and miscellaneous other vegetables. This month I cut up some 4 liter PE milk cartons into plastic 'rings' and put them around some plants, pushing them a little into the ground on all sides. While I'm pretty sure the slugs *could* climb up the plastic, they don't seem inclined to do so (so far), and I have some zucchinis and chard growing nicely in the rings where my plantings of quinoa and chard earlier in the spring had been chewed to bits. It seems to be much the most effective thing I've tried.
   That gave me the idea to put up 6 inch tall pieces of plastic around the whole garden to keep them from coming in off the lawn and from the bushes (where they're everywhere) in the first place. I didn't get very far, but I did one edge of the new garden and planted beans inside of that. Before these might not have lasted long enough for me to know they had germinated, but this time they have at least got a good start, a couple of inches high with unchewed leaves. (There are some missing, tho, empty gaps in the line. I'm going to guess birds dug up the seeds and ate them. Hmm... July 4th some more are poking up. Maybe just slow germinating.)
 I bought a piece of 'coroplast' (PP?) plastic and sliced half of it into four 6 inch 'slug fence' pieces. (The other half into three 8 inchers.) I would be best to put it all the way around to complement the deer fence. (Yet another garden job that ought to get done!)

   Toward the end of the month, the corn that was planted early under the PE plastic "cold frame" was pressing on the plastic 'roof' and I took it off. The tallest one is waist height; a few others are over knee high. The ones closer to the house wall (some replaced owing to slug damage, but I think they get less light too) aren't as large. The idea is that it has now had a "jump start": it has grown enough, early enough, that it will produce corn before summer is over. But much still depends on how nice the summer is. (Sigh, another place to put in slug fencing, all along beside the sidewalk!)

   Well, even if it goes well, I won't have much to share with neighbors or trade with. But I might expand on the idea next year, with more, taller plastic enclosures, in the larger new garden with slug fence set up. And I'll grow the "early" variety corn. Altogether it seems promising.

   I think it's probably too cool and breezy around here for locusts. I rarely see grasshoppers or crickets. Seeing what's happening in other places around the planet, that at least is a blessing.

   The chickens are now over two months old. There being two roosters and generally too many chickens in an enclosure I had envisioned for just two or three, one beautiful brown rooster regrettably was made into two dinners in late June. The other four have now traveled around the yard and house in the "chickenmobile". (It has two doors. I guess that makes it a "coupe".) I move them often. They spend a little while pecking away at the lawn, then I guess they've got everything and after a while they just lie around. Unfortunately they still eat quite a lot of chicken feed. Eggs are still 3 or 4 months away. Someone said the grayish one with tufts of feathers sticking out her cheeks will probably lay blue eggs!
   An eagle flew into a nearby tree on the 30th. I suspect it was checking them out. But with wire over the top, they should be safe from hawks, ravens and eagles. (I think they're too big now for ravens to tackle.)

   (The dark colored ones blend into the shadows much better than the white ones.)

Bug Bite Rash

   My neighbor Ron was mowing the lawn. I went over talked with him for a few minutes. A dense cloud of "no-see-ums" (midges, gnats?), doubtless stirred up by the lawn tractor, descended on me. I kept wiping my exposed skin, but I only had a sweater on instead of a jacket and they must have been getting in through the loose weave. Soon we had both had enough and departed. But soon my armpits were itchy. That seemed like an odd place to itch. I ignored it for an hour while I did another little job in the crawl space. But it was getting worse fast. The tiny biters must have hit some critical mass.
   I had a bath, but it continued getting worse. Then an antihistamine. A red itchy rash with welts spread all over my body except my head and below the knees. (The lower legs and feet got it too, the next day.) Perhaps I spread it by scratching or rubbing the itches.
   Then I rubbed warm sugared salt water on my skin. (Sugar? I don't invent home remedies, I just use them. I think the sugar makes it sticky so the salt stays on.) That didn't help much. It seemed more like the rubbing had just spread the rash. The next day I tried again with much saltier water and doused it on rather than rubbing. That seemed to work a lot better, but wherever clothing put pressure on it, it started itching again. So I sat on a towel on a chair at a computer with no clothes on, and was a bit chilly but started to feel human again.
   After two sleepless nights I had called the hospital and went to see a doctor. She recommended/prescribed some antihistamines, but by that time the drug store was closed. The 3 hour trip (there was a long wait) with no treatment and my clothes on left it all getting rapidly worse again and I did some more sugared salty water, since that seemed to give the most relief. But it was hard to teach myself to just slop it on instead of rubbing it in.
   And of course it meant another trip to town the next day to go to the drugstore. (which has been closed except for prescription pickup since April. Apparently everything else can go ATRS while there's the vague threat of this wuhan virus with zero cases on this island so far.)

   Then I remembered I'd had this same, or very similar, itch and occasionally welts before when I lived in Victoria. And, I think, just a couple of times since I moved. It would be a small area on my hand or my wrist. I would rub or scratch it, and it would spread around nearby. Most unpleasant! I never did understand where it came from. I thought perhaps spider bites, but I never found a culprit. I'll bet it was midges, maybe just one or two, getting into my bedroom at night and biting wherever was exposed. If it happens again I'll have to note whether it only happens when bugs are in season or also in winter.

Food, Economic, Population and Disease Woes

* I have on occasions felt somewhat sick to my stomach. It comes in bouts lasting on and off for perhaps a week. It started happening again. What's wrong with me? Then I thought, the stores here don't have my favorite "Orowheat" bread any more, and now I was mostly baking my own bread in my bread machine. For a change, I had bought a loaf of "Dempsters" bread (that's what was available) and was almost finished it.
   I think it's the bread. There are some strange ingredients towards the bottom of the list and I suppose one of those could be causing the problem, but nothing stood out to me as a "red flag". "100% whole grains"... sounds healthy... but what whole grains?
   I suspect it's made with Monsanto "glyphosate herbicide tolerant" GMO flour(s), which is known to cause digestive problems. (It seems to have caused millions of people to decide they're "gluten intolerant", and the effect has been called "wheat belly".) I stopped eating it. I stopped feeling sick. I fed the last of it to the crows, not my chickens.
   The genetic engineers, and the executives at Monsanto who pursued this massive experiment with the world's food supply and all of humanity as guinea pigs knew it wasn't healthy, but did they realize just how much insidious, almost planet wide harm they've done to everyone's wellbeing? (And just as the glyphosate lawsuits started coming, Monsanto was sold to Bayer. I suppose those who were in charge then have retired rich and laughing instead of being shot.)
   I remember at one point people were demanding that food products with GMO ingredients be labeled as such. (Was that the California 'initiative' where the state government "lost" 100,000 signatures so that there weren't enough to cause it to be on the ballot?) Someone promoting them said "You might as well label them 'poison'. No one would buy them." 'Poison' would only have been a fair warning for splicing in the "glyphosate tolerance" gene. But big money once again forced its way through over the real interests of society. Now you don't really know what you're eating.

* And lately you don't know where it came from either, foreign foods now getting a "Product of USA" label just because a US company imported them. I'm not sure if that's also the case in Canada. But a tin of herring with a Canadian company name on it didn't it say where the herring came from. I think we can be sure that they would have said "Product of Canada" if they had come from Canadian fishermen.

* Say... when did we start using herring so much instead of sardines, anyway? Isn't herring the species that's suddenly so scarce that the whole food chain that lives off them is starving? Are we strip mining the whole ocean of everything? When do we start eating krill? Oh, wait... we already catch the krill, and feed them to farmed fish. Oh, wait... all the "mysteriously" dead whales in the news... no krill would mean they would starve! Then we eat the farmed fish. Nothing sinister about eating "farmed fish". Might as well have just kept whaling until they were too scarce to bother. They could go the way of the Stellar Sea cow.
   I saw a video on youtube of a gigantic fishing operation with a ship traversing a wide circle - a mile or more? - letting out netting. When it reached the starting point it was tightened and pulled in, and everything in the huge circle was netted and brought on board, tons of small fish. A dozen or more people were working on it. I was shocked. Is that where my herring came from? How many ships do that daily? What is still left in the oceans? What happens when it's all gone?

* And so many people still think the world isn't overpopulated, let alone heavily overpopulated and headed for disaster. When I was born (1955), the population was estimated to be 2.75 billion. This was already the largest population ever. In 1960 it hit 3 billion. I could only shake my head and gape in amazement as it hit 4 billion (1974; start of homelessness in USA around (?)1982), then 5 billion (1987), then 6 billion (1999), then 7 (2011). And nobody ever seemed concerned. Except the most idealistic people who decided not to have children themselves. Now we are approaching 8 billion!
   In the 'developed world', birth control was developed and people started having smaller families, even below replacement levels. In the less developed countries without birth control, people also kept having sex and the big families kept coming. No one from the 'developed world' seemed to want to help educate or lend a hand - we just sent food aid so they could have more and more starving people. We should have been sending birth control pills and teachers to initially teach their teachers of the methods and the absolutely essential need to manage the population if a good quality of life was desired and starvation of their children was to be avoided. (Better still, bring their promising teaching students to North America and Europe to learn, and then send them back.)
   For a while I thought at least the developed world would be okay, that our populations would stop growing with the lowered birth rates. But alas, our "Ponzy scheme" financial system demands exponential growth to prevent financial implosion, and rather than face the difficulty our amoral leaders just imported more and more people from the bulging populations elsewhere and we allowed ourselves to be overrun. In fact, as the population continued to grow, surely white people have had even fewer children owing to the worsening quality of life. (White births are now a minority everywhere and in a few more generations there may be no more white race, and a somewhat similar situation applies to the Japanese. China is headed in that direction too.)
   The quality of a civilization can only reflect the quality of the people who compose it. Ideals doesn't survive if the idealists of each generation allow themselves to be pushed aside and killed (or they are never born) by those who give ideals and even practical matters of future sustainability little thought.

   I understand that with the ever-growing population, each generation since World War Two has been poorer than the generation before it. In the last decade, large numbers of people have been barely eking out a living, with a growing number living in tents and on the streets. Worldwide. Now, in 2020, the virus lockdowns are bringing things rapidly to a head. The "everything bubble" was already starting to unravel, especially by 2019. Its collapse has been greatly accelerated by locking down society.

Little comment is needed on the above.

The graphs below of USA housing payment defaults provide a
glimpse of the extent of the economic troubles. Almost 1/3
of all Americans surveyed suddenly can no longer pay for
their accommodation. There are already swelling populations
of homeless people in many cities. Now for many more, the wolf
will be at the door when the "mortgage forbearance" runs out.

   The mortal future for vast numbers of people in the USA (and one suspects most everywhere) is suddenly in grave doubt -- they literally may not have one. Food production has already suffered global catastrophes of weather and plagues in and since the 2019 growing seasons, and now work has been hampered and halted in spring planting season by decisions of politicians, so casually made to prevent a few deaths by virus with no thought to any other consideration. The governor of Washington state decided if fruit pickers were afraid of the virus, there would simply be no fruit picking this year. A whole state: food production canceled! With record high populations everywhere! How far detached from reality are the decision makers?
   Food production can't be brought back in weeks or months: planting time for 2020 is over, and many experienced farmers and companies in the food production and distribution chain have been bankrupted - could it be even half of farmers? - making "back to normal" in 2021 almost impossible, too. Even many types of seeds are now in short supply after two years of disastrous plantings.
   Countries have been trying to buy food from other countries, and some of those countries are banning exports to be sure they have enough for their own populations. And now the best producing countries last year, those of South America, are being ravaged by locusts.

I expect deaths from certain of these causes to be "ballooning" rapidly in the coming years.

* I hear that some well-to-do people, in their recognition of the seriousness of the overpopulation problem, "ideally" want to reduce the population to 500 million. Even if there were some reasonable and humane way to attain this, it would surely be swinging the pendulum much too far the other way.
   There are ridiculous estimates of "10 or 20 million" people for the global population way back in hunter-gatherer times. But the population of North America alone was estimated to be around 50 million hunter-gatherers in 1550 before smallpox struck down perhaps 90% of them over the next century. Scaling up from that we can assume that the whole world population was more likely around 500 million even in the most primitive of times tens or even hundreds of thousands of years ago.
   Agriculture, even early agriculture, has been said to quadruple the man-land ratio - always the ultimate deterministic factor in population levels - so the world population could have been up to around 2 billion any time since recorded history began. I'm not at all confident that figure was never reached, or at least approached, at any time before 1927 as is often claimed. It could perhaps have been there for example in the most prosperous of Roman times, with China and India also agrarian and well populated. Of course no one was taking global censuses in that era.
   I suspect that in this modern age, with our present technologies and those we are now uncovering (esp. 'free' energy from HE rays, and small scale automation... and perhaps low energy heating and air conditioning) the world could comfortably support up to perhaps 3 billion people - certainly well over 2 billion. If the 'free' energy were used to desalinate sea water and turn vast deserts into gardens, perhaps that would rise somewhat. If the population should ever go down to 500 million, would modern civilization with all the technological gains - and the few but priceless social gains - all so hard-won in recent centuries, be maintained and human progress continued? Debatable. 2 to 3 billion would do it much better.
   After the coming "population bubble" collapse, such numbers, which will be willingly kept stable by all to prevent a repeat calamity, will have a high and sustainable quality of life with global cooperation and no wars, leading to tremendous advances in social stability and finally social sustainability.

* Here is a Youtube video, several years old now (ie, well before Wuhan), about how disease organisms cross the species barrier from animals into humans and are likely to cause a future pandemic - just such as is now in progress. Such crossings happen 'all the time', so the present viral concern is most unlikely to have been a conspiracy as many have speculated. What is making it so serious is the huge human population that will help a pandemic to spread rapidly, especially in overcrowded cities - just as has been seen in Wuhan and New York for example.


   The next one could be far worse, and someone has just told me [June 29th] that there is some new human disease brewing in China, said to have come from pigs. Uh-oh! (Okay... so far only spreading via pigs, not human-to-human. Yet.)

Wall Building Pictures

   12 foot unplaned 2"x6" wall studs are a lot heavier than the 8 foot 2"x4" ones I've dealt with before. In fact, compared to dressed "stud length" (90"?) x 2x4s, they are about three times the volume and weight of wood. (No wonder I only carry one at a time, and set them carefully so they won't fall over unexpectedly!)
   I used 1/4 inch plywood instead of 3/8" because I could hold up a sheet with one hand while on a ladder. I could use my other hand to get it into the exact right place, get the cordless drill from between my knees, and get a couple of screws in to hold it in place. They didn't have 1/4" fir so I got birch. Seems nicer anyway.

   Next: the south wall footings. (Ugh!)

Small Thots

* I was born two years before the first "Sputnik" satellite was launched into near Earth orbit. I am "Pre space age".
   When I was reminded that after leaving the protection of Earth's magnetic field for a week or so, the lunar astronauts had mentioned seeing bright flashes of light with their eyes closed, and then was told that some of them had developed cataracts at relatively young ages, I realized that we are not sending humans to Mars or anywhere else that will take months or years with our current technologies. Along with food and air production, we need to be able to generate and maintain a strong "mini Earth magnetic field" to protect the astronauts from cosmic 'rays' (high energy charged particles) during their journey and at their destination. Now a new statistic has come to light: a high level of cardiovascular disease among that same select population.

   Until the last couple lf decades, a film camera with a mechanical shutter gave us the best pictures, and someone had to be there to take them. The first photo of the entire Earth rising over the moon's horizon from Apollo 8, and then the televised first landing on the moon, were global consciousness altering events.
   But now digital cameras can take an almost unlimited number of very high definition images. We can see far more with unmanned spacecraft, in far more places, without risking lives. When I was young, it was a thrill to see grainy pictures of Mars or Venus, where not so long previously it was never thought we'd be able to see in our lifetimes. The idea that distant Uranus, Neptune or Pluto could ever be reached without a spacecraft traveling for a century had never been conceived. The images from the Pluto flyby are of unparalleled quality. A human trip to Mars or elsewhere would be, if not highly deleterious to health or impossible, at least pretty much redundant for everyone who couldn't go, who have already seen more images and data from more worlds than manned missions could ever make possible.

* One day while watching youtube, an ad came on for a device intended to restore hair growth to thin or bald patches. It was a little drum wheel on the end of a handle. The drum had countless short points sticking out, said to be 1.5mm, "Acupuncture for the Scalp". One simply rolled this back and forth over bald areas or thinning hair.
   That would seem to offer the scalp stimulation of a good hair brush in spades. I suspect it would work. (Perhaps the points might even stab the tiny Demodex Follicularum mites that probably cause baldness, and thereby deal with them!)
   I clicked over it without going to check it out further. That may have been a mistake. I never saw the ad again and I don't remember what the device was called. (That's at least a couple of times I seen a useful looking ad only once and regretted paying it little attention. Useless ads always seem to be repeated over and over "ad infinitum".)
   Later I tried just rocking the hair brush back and forth instead of brushing. The bristles, while not sharp, had a vigorous effect that was probably similar. (A brush with plain straight nylon bristles, not the ones with little balls on the ends.)

* I don't get it. You scratch your scalp to stimulate hair growth. You scratch your back and it eventually gets nasty moles on it.

* Someone in Venezuela reported that his biggest "prepper" shortcoming was in not putting away enough food beforehand, not realizing how long a crisis could drag on. (Hopefully a garden and chickens can greatly extend the time stored food will last. But at some point we are all dependent on others to grow the things we're not so we can all have a good diet. Nobody here grows oranges, bananas, wheat, rice, sugar beets or sugar cane, canola or olives...)

* Here are a couple of "posters" received in e-mails.

(Eccentric Silliness Department)

* Do these names have a familiar ring?: Robin, Peter2, PayPal.

* Why is the word called "mirror". Shouldn't it be "mirrim" or something?

* I have a great idea for a movie, set in ancient Athens. I'm not sure what it'll be about. Well, I have a cool title, anyway: "Apocalypse in the Acropolis".

* Having sold the cellar to the buyer, I had to have the rest of the house moved.

* Why is it called a "stapler"? Shouldn't it be called a "staypusher"? The thing to pull them out again should be called a "staypuller".

* There were three geologic periods when reptiles reigned. The first was called the "Triassic". Shouldn't that have been the last period, with the first two being the "Monassic" and the "Diassic"

* Between the Triassic and the Cretaceous periods there were huge "sauropod" dinosaurs with very long necks. That's why it was called the "Giraffic" period. (Many have seen the movie, "Giraffic Park".)

   "in depth reports" for each project are below. I hope they may be useful to anyone who wants to get into a similar project, to glean ideas for how something might be done, as well as things that might have been tried, or just thought of and not tried... and even of how not to do something - why it didn't work or proved impractical. Sometimes they set out inventive thoughts almost as they occur - and are the actual organization and elaboration in writing of those thoughts. They are thus partly a diary and are not extensively proof-read for literary perfection, consistency, completeness and elimination of duplications before publication. I hope they add to the body of wisdom for other researchers and developers to help them find more productive paths and avoid potential pitfalls and dead ends.

Electric Transport

Miles Electric Truck: New Planetary Gearbox

(8th) I connected the Curtis Programmer, "OEM Mode". It said "system detected" and told me the model number of the motor controller. But it didn't say anything else. On "monitor" there were items like "throttle" and "battery", but no numbers beside them. Likewise no numbers in "settings" or "programming".
   I went to the Curtis site and found the motor controller. It said "Manual is not publicly available for this model. Contact your OEM." WTF! Miles isn't even in business any more. Now what do I do? Junk a whole truck because "the manual is not publicly available"? I'll have to assume I can find some way around this.

(9th) I took the right rear wheel off. The problem wasn't with the brake itself. Rather, the brake line had rusted through and was leaking right next to the wheel. The next day I went into town and bought a new brake line that fit. That evening someone helped me bleed the line. No more pedal sagging gradually to the floor when I braked!
(11th) Having retightened the setscrews and put some "locktight" in the threads, I drove the truck out of the garage and got half way around the driveway. It got worse and worse until I had to go underneath and retighten them just to drive back into the garage, and they were already loose again by the time I got there. Obviously, and much to my surprise, set screws to hold the shaft in place was a complete failure. This was disheartening to say the least. Now what?

(13th) Okay, so the spline on the shaft was a bit too small in diameter for the socket. New ideas occurred to me. I could pound on one side of the shaft with a maul and flatten it into an oval. Well, it was hard steel. Working steel is done by heating it red hot, then pounding.
   It wasn't quite the same number of splines: 18 in the socket versus 19 on the shaft. (This would seem to be yet another amateurish feature of the Miles truck: I've never seen an even number of splines before. Odd is probably just smoother, since a groove on one side then lines up with a ridge opposite.) So, would bulging it out until the splines met be helpful anyway? Probably. I could clamp it in a vise or something just below the splined end, heat it up, and pound on the end with the maul, "drop forge" style. To my mind, that should make the end bulge out. How far down would the shaft bulge? 1/4 inch? 1 inch or more? in between? How even would it be? Could I avoid bending it off center? If any part bulged out a little too big, I could file it down. or, to keep it centered and straight, turn it on the lathe. grind inside the splines if necessary.
   Egads, did I want to get into forging steel, something totally new for me? Borrow an acetylene torch from someone? Maybe I could find someone who does that sort of thing? That would make more sense.
   Then I thought that for the small end of the shaft I could - hopefully - just use the 'swirljet' propane torch. So the hard parts will be to properly support the shaft so I can heat the end and then pound on it, and to hit it square on and not have it bend off-center in the pounding. Probably no one around here would have anything special that would hold the shaft anyway. (A vise might be useful, but something (an anvil, perhaps?) has to hold the bottom very solid so it can't slip down as the top is being pounded on.)

(14th) I got the shaft out. (The motor end was easy. The compression fitting end on the planetary gearbox, for which the shaft was supposedly the exact right size, had to be pried out mm by mm by hammer and screwdriver, with visegrips solidly clamped on the shaft and repeatedly released and moved back against the housing.)
   With the shaft out it was obvious why the setscrews had kept "loosening off". They weren't. Instead, they were scraping the splines right off the shaft, all the way around until it spun freely again. Stainless steel isn't hardened steel. This shaft was from a washing machine, not automotive and the splines definitely weren't "case hardened". And it must be that the narrow grooves in the shaft's spline didn't fit over the ridges of the motor's, so the side opposite the set screws wasn't solidly locked into place as I had expected.

   I noticed the splined end had a hole drilled along the shaft center. Well, that should make the end both heat up more easily and bulge out more easily by pounding on it. Then what? If the shaft fit pretty tightly, I could grind some flat spots - or drill indents - into it for the setscrews. The tight fit should center it and stop the vibration, and - surely - setscrews set into indents couldn't get loose.
   It seems to me now what I should have done (if I had realized the project would drag on and on) was to cut a length of blank shaft and made my own splined end. (It was long enough to have cut both ends off.) I could have used the rotary table to turn it to exact angles for 18 even splines. Hopefully I could have found a small, thin cutting disk for the milling machine to make the actual grooves. Then I'd have put the shaft on the lathe and turned it down (just a bit) until the splined end fit into the splined motor socket.

(24th) I suppose predictably, a wind came up while I tried to heat the end of the shaft. I tried to heat the top inch and a half, but when I did pound on it only the end 3/16" mushroomed out. Did the heat do anything? It seemed a little silly to think that that short length might grip.

(25th) Not seeing any better plan, I pounded the shaft into the motor socket. When it got in far enough, apparently the fattened end was past the tenon splines and it just spun freely. Well, maybe if I could set it in place just so the fat part was at the second pair of setscrews? I could tighten them up, and maybe it would be enough to not slip?
   Unexpectedly, getting it off - after having pounded it to fit on - was harder than on. I had to lock the visegrips tightly onto the shaft at the tenon and pound on them with the hammer, a teensy bit at a time and then move them, turning the shaft 1/2 turn and resetting the visegrips against the tenon. Almost the whole way off, over an inch. All under the low truck not on the ramps.

   Sometime near the end of the month I finally tried to put everything back together. I was having trouble getting the shaft as far into the motor socket as I had planned. Somehow I got out from under the truck and haven't gone back under yet, maybe a push and a couple of bolts away from "done". (Not confident of a good result... the project is getting quite discouraging.)

Electric Hubcap Unipolar Motors: "Outrunner" Radial Flux?

   Until now the few motors I've made have been axial flux, with the coils and rotor magnets across from each other. It's a great configuration. It has a wide - and adjustable - flux gap that prevents rotor magnets from deteriorating as they do with minute gaps. They are also the easiest motors to make. The magnet and coil surfaces face each other flat instead of on a curve.
   The one main problem is that it's hard to make the magnets really secure on the rotor. Centrifugal forces make them want to fly off to the outside, like bullets. In lieu of some complex magnet holding design, that limits the maximum RPM to a lower level than an "outrunner" configuration with the magnets on the inside of the outer rim and the stator coils on the inside of that diameter.
   Since the magnets in that configuration simply press against the steel rim as RPM rises, centrifugal force can hardly make them fly out. So the safe RPM is higher. Outrunner model airplane BLDC motors turn at ridiculous speeds. Any magnets might potentially come loose, but it's less likely even at higher RPMs and less potentially catastrophic if they do - they will probably jam the motor as it starts or at low speed rather than fly out like bullets when it's at top speed.

   So a question that's long been in my mind is, Why are flux gaps half an inch in axial flux motors, but hundredths of an inch in radial flux motors? Why not have wide gaps in a radial flux motor? What is the difference in the parameters? One thing that occurs is that the side of the drum is likely steel and close enough to interact with the coil magnetism. Does putting the rotor magnets much closer push the effect into the background? What if one used a steel ring (eg, a short section of thick walled pipe) as the rim for the magnets, and had a non-magnetic side for the drum - perhaps PP-epoxy composite?
   As the motor diameter becomes larger, it would seem that the differences between axial flux and outrunner radial diminish. The magnetic interface surfaces become less and less curved, and the coil windings start to have almost as much room as with axial. With an "infinite diameter", they become flat again, moving linearly past each other.
   The 12 coil, 8 magnet pole unipolar motor design which I worked out a year ago is probably large enough that if flux gaps can be larger than miniscule, the magnets and coils could be flat-faced and thus eliminate some manufacturing and component headaches. It could use the same iron powder coil cores, the same rectangular magnets, and be a very similar large diameter. I set some coils up and came up with about 375mm for the outside of the spinning rotor - somewhat larger if one wanted a stationary outer shell outside of that, and a little smaller if one "squeezed" in the coils. It would probably be a little fatter (150+ mm?) of a cake. It would have the same potential for experimentation with permanent magnet assists and most anything else that might be tried. It would be rather similar weight - perhaps lighter with a largely PP-epoxy rotor. And one thing might be better: if one made a huge diameter motor, it would tolerate a little flex better than the axial flux. But I think I'll stick with the 12 coil version as the maximum size. (I wonder if parts of the stator could be 3D printed with the higher-temperature 'nylon' plastic filament?)

   Will I ever get around to this? I haven't even done anything with the now one year old axial flux design. Can I get more people involved? I think with so many valuable projects, only some sort of funding or support is going enable building them all, or even a large proportion of them.

Ground Effect Vehicle (1/4 scale model)

(16th) Getting this running was (like too many projects) more than "overdue". I finished making the battery tubes, with the finicky bolts and little copper bits that compress the cells together and make the connections - 'little' jobs that always take longer than anyone would expect.
   I started soldering the #8 'stove' wires and I put one tube into a hull. What was wrong? Well, the leads on the motor controller were pretty short. Another 2 or 3 inches would have made a big difference to get them out into the open for connecting. And the stove wires were just so STIFF! It all made the wiring so difficult. I still have trouble wrapping my head around that these ducted fans will draw over 100 amps, at 22 volts, and so require such heavy wire. I stopped and worked on the house wall. In the evening I searched my garbage pail of wire and found a #8 AWG three wire 'cab tire' cable I could strip open. But every inch of 'cab tire' is hard to strip. I'd already stripped the stove wire cable. I went back out and found a piece of very flexible "#8 AWG" stereo speaker wire (really #9 if that!). I decided to use the stove wire after all, with this to make little short, flexible connection pieces.

(18th) I got some wiring done. I fired up one motor. It made a lot of wind and the back of the fairly well balanced model lifted up. But with the weight of the battery pack it failed to slide the model across the floor. (With wheels it certainly would have rolled.) I hope it'll lift off the water with the two of them. If not I could reduce the batteries to one string of six per motor instead of two strings to reduce the weight, but then that would probably reduce the fan speed a bit.

   In fact things should be measured... Okay, on full power the voltage dropped as low as about 11 volts. Currents hit about 30 amps. That's about 330 watts. The rating was 112 amps at 22 volts: 2464 watts. Apparently the battery power was very insufficient. We must note that 2400 watts is substantially more power than the 1500 or 1800 watts one can obtain from a wall plug. Hmm... when is the last time these were charged?
   It was a nuisance clipping a voltmeter onto the wires. Maybe I should install those little self powered voltmeters? If I put them after the circuit breakers they would turn off with the model and not drain the batteries when it wasn't in use. (Next, where would I mount them?)
   So now I started realizing I might have another concern: where I thought "any good batteries should do", if I'm not getting the power even from all this mass of lithium cells, I might just have to order the exact batteries the manufacturer recommends.

   On testing I again noted that the 'throttle' worked backward both mechanicly and electricly. To stop the motor the stick was pushed forward instead of back and full power was with the stick pulled back. And if the transmitter was turned off (or, eg, if the model got out of range), the motor whizzed up to full power instead of stopping. Might I say I don't like that? I don't understand why anyone would make or want it that way. I may decide to put in an opamp circuit to invert it. If I do that, while I'm at it I might as well make the 'throttle' (forward-back) do both motors and have side-to-side cut power to right or left. That would be much easier for directional control, too.

(23rd) I finally got around to trying to charge the batteries. I brought in the only lab power supply that went to 30 volts (the old "Circuit Test" one that would no longer put out more than 2 amps instead of 10 for no apparent reason) and connected the battery tube that wasn't installed yet. I had been charging at 4.0 or 4.1 volts, and I set it to 24.0 to charge the tube of six in series. The two parallel rows, drew 1.4 amps. How much did these cells hold? Again there being no identifying numbers didn't help. I put them on at 1:10 PMPDT and set a timer for 3 hours. That would be 4.2 amp-hours. I doubted they were much more than that - per row. Mostly they balanced at about 4 volts, but one was up to 4.33 V - no doubt the one added to the set and already charged. I decided that if they charged and held about 3.8 or so for ages, that must be within allowed limits. After all, typical 3.2 volt lithium cells are allowed to charge up as high as 4.2 volts. It wasn't getting warm, so I let it continue. But I was only going to keep it on charge while I was there to monitor it. Or else charge them away from the house. I left it on for an hour.
   But the voltages didn't seem to add up. Then I found that both meters on the power supply were lying. The current meter needle still read .4 A disconnected and the voltmeter said 24.0 but another meter said 24.3. When I turned it down to actual 24.0 the cells were slightly discharging instead of charging. Disconnected, no cell read under 3.95 volts. Surely that set must be quite fully charged.
   Instead of trying to extract the other set from the model I set the power supply close to it on the floor and got alligator clip leads to make the connections. At 4.0 volts it charged at a real 1.2 amps or so, dropping from an initial 1.7 over a few minutes.
   When I tested again after charging, at full power it still put out just 33 amps at 11 volts: 363 watts. It sounded like a lot of power and it blew a lot of air, but I guess it's capable of much more, and more is needed. I had thought that, being from some electric motorbike, these cells would be very high current, but after all there had been 12 in parallel and 12 in series in that application, 144 cells. If say each cell would put out 7 amps without serious voltage drop: 7 amps (per series set) times 12 parallel sets, times 44.4 volts is over 3700 watts. But with just 12 cells in two sets it would be 7A * 2 * 22.2V = 310W per fan.

   I started thinking these cells just weren't putting out what was needed. If I added more rows in parallel (if they would even fit) they would only make it absurdly heavy for a flying model. I looked at the recommendation in the one-page "owners manual" for the ducted fan: Li-Po 6S 5500mAH 35C. "22.2 volts". Deciphering that: lithium iron phosphate batteries, 6 in series, 5.5 amp-hours, capable of delivering all their energy in under (60/35) 2 minutes.
   I looked on Aliexpress. There were a lot of cells with those sort of specs, all saying they were for drones and model aircraft. Apparently they are quite specific and special. I ordered two: "LiPo 6S 5200mAH 80C". "80C"*5.2AH=416 amps. There was the power to fly. And I suppose it will only fly for a few minutes. But flying in the ground effect I should be able to turn the power down lower and it should go quite a bit longer than a high-flying model of similar size.
(24th) Oops! I went back to check the weight and found the ones I had ordered were only 7.4 volts. I went to "cancel". If "cancel" goes through I won't have wasted 100$. (It didn't.)
   Then I found some better ones at a different store: "LiPo 6S 6000mAH 100C" -- and "22.2V". (I should have known I wouldn't get away for under 200$.) The weight of these ones is about 800 grams. The inadequate ones I have are over 1500, so this will cut the weight by about 1.5 Kg. Yay!

   Here I thought I had everything and was just a few assembly steps away from testing it. Now I've spent more money and I have to wait until August for these new batteries to arrive. I might install the other battery and get both fans running, but I don't have much confidence it would fly or even move on the floor - at least unless I put wheels on it. On to another project for now!

Other "Green" Electric Equipment Projects

(No Reports)

Electricity Generation

My Solar Power System

New Panel & Heavier, Shorter Wire

   I helped someone out setting up a small solar system. In that I used some 4 to 1 MC4 (solar panel connector) combiners for his several small 100W panels. And I thought, I've got two panels on the lawn and lots sitting around that no one has bought, why not use a set of these combiners and connect three panels? A simple, ten minute job... Ha Ha!
(30th) The house system altogether was doing about 1100 watts. I took off the 2 to 1 solar panel combiners. In doing so, a wire (my wiring) pulled out of its MC4 connector pin. It was a bad connection owing to corrosion! And the insulation looked a little scorched, as if the pin had been heating up. How long had it been like that? When I pulled another connection apart, water came out of it. (Imagine that, connectors out in the open on a lawn, getting damp and corroding!) So I redid the connection. BTW those MC4 connectors are frustrating to get apart. In the evening I went on line and ordered some of the special tool to push both catches open at once, along with some more combiners and some 2 meter solar panel extension cords.
   Then I put on all three panels. For the wires to reach each other at the combiner I had to turn the two outer panels sideways with the middle one tall. (They're going to cast shadows on each other in early morning and late PM.)

   When I turned the inverter back on with another 305 watt panel connected, the power had gone up by a whopping 30 watts. What was wrong? Finally I realized it must be the skinny cord. I had originally only planned to put one solar panel on the lawn, and I had used a 100 foot, #16 AWG extension cord from the refuse station. I had doubled up the black and green on "minus" for #13 equivalent, but "plus" was still just #16. I thought that was sufficient for one panel. "#16" is rated for 10 amps, and the 305W solar panel was just over 9 max. Then I had added the second panel. And now I had added a third. As the current went up so did the voltage drop through that long, skinny wire. From 34 volts at the MC4 combiners, it was down to 28 at the grid tie inverter. 6 volts was being lost, and apparently the inverter decided 28 at its end was the MPP. The weather has been crap, but the bad connection (probably reducing the power for months) and the long, thin cord is a reason power has been a little lower than it should have been.

   It was silly running so many amps through such a long cord when much of it was just wound up in a coil. I had recently got a 50 foot, #14 AWG extension cord wire from the refuse station, and I wired that one up instead. It still had plenty of slack. Again I doubled up black and green, making the 'minus' wire "#11". (This time I soldered the MC4 pins as well as crimping them.) When I turned it on, the system was soon putting out 1450 watts - an extra 350 watts with one more 305 watt panel. It illustrates a somewhat extreme case of voltage and power drop at higher currents in a long, thin wire compared to a more properly sized wire. (Even then heavier wires, #12 or #10 - or double #14 on both sides, wouldn't have hurt at all.)
   If the house install was making any more power, it would have to go on a separate AC circuit. So, the solar power figures should [so far do] look better in July. (I figure the time I had it turned off and the extra power output after pretty much canceled each other for that last day of June - it seemed to correspond pretty much "as usual" with what the unchanged trailer installation put out. So June no change and July a fresh slate.)

Month of June Log of Solar Power Generated [and grid power consumed]

(All times are in PST: clock 48 minutes ahead of sun, not PDT which is an hour and 48 minutes ahead. DC power output readings - mostly the kitchen hot water heater for some months, then just lights - are reset to zero daily (for just lights, occasionally), while the others are cumulative.)

Solar: House, Trailer  => total KWH [grid power meter reading(s)@time] Sky conditions

31st 444.32, 1305.87 =>   9.56 [74941@21:30] Scattered sunshine between clouds.

  1st 447.82, 1308.34 =>   5.97 [55Km,chj; 74967@20:00] Clouds, rain, cold. Ran woodstove. Great start to June!
  2nd Where did this day go? Call it 10 & 9.51 ?
  3rd 458.54, 1317.13 => 19.51 (TWO days) [55Km,chj; 74998@21:00]
  4th 463.22, 1320.89 => 10.24 [75011@21:30] AM sunny except thick jet trails, PM cloudy
  5th 470.71, 1326.45 => 13.15 [85Km; 75035@20:30] Mostly sunny PM, scattered jet trails
  6th 474.03, 1328.85 =>   5.72 [55Km; 75054@21:30] Seemed pretty sunny AM (some jet trails), but thunder & rain in PM.
  7th 481.00, 1333.74 => 11.86 [40Km; 75073@21:00] Fair bit of sun.
  8th 487.60, 1338.55 => 11.41 [75085@21:00] much like yesterday
  9th 490.09, 1340.24 =>   4.18 [55Km; 75109@21:00] No sun until glaring thing appeared behind trees just before sunset.
10th 493.41, 1342.81 =>   5.89 [55Km; 75132@21:00] Just Cloudz, wind.
11th 498.45, 1346.29 =>   8.52 [75142@21:30] Apparently nicer than yesterday. Still seems like Juneuary.
12th 506.53, 1352.30 => 14.09 [85Km; 75164@21:00] Much nicer, mostly sunny with scattered clouds!
13th another day missed! We'll call it 7.5 & 9.33 [55Km; not read] less nice. Finally days are a bit warmer.
14th 516.51, 1359.15 => 16.83 (TWO days) [75188@22:00] a bit nicer
15th 523.89, 1264.57 => 12.80 [75199@21:00] AM cloudy. PM Sunny!
16th 529.03, 1468.31 =>   8.88 [75203@21:00] AM clouds, PM Sun & clouds
17th 532.97, 1371.16 =>   6.79 [60Km; 75219@21:30] Clouds, bit of rain.
18th 536.98, 1374.04 =>   6.89 [75226@21:30] Mor uv same.
19th 539.66, 1376.02 =>   4.66 [85Km; 75248@20:30] And yet mor. (For 18+ hour days, there sure isn't much light!) "Fritter and waste the KWH in an offhand way-ay-ay" (Pink Floyd)
20th 545.46, 1380.18 =>   9.96 [55Km; 75259@21:30] No rain.
21th 551.95, 1384.84 => 10.65 [75271@20:30] Again no rain. Virtually no sun either. Longest "day".
22th 556.15, 1387.86 =>   7.22 [50Km; 75292@21:30] "I've seen dreary days that I think will never end."
23th 564.51, 1393.93 => 14.43 [50Km; 75315@21:30] Gosh, quite a bit of sun today!
24th 573.09, 1400.39 => 15.04 [75319@21:00] For once Mostly Sunny except for spreading jet trails. (Yay, more power made than used!)
25th 575.52, 1402.04 =>   4.08 [75327@23:00] No sun today.
26th 580.64, 1405.79 =>   8.87 [85Km; 75344@21:00] Hardly any sun but brighter clouds, warmer.
27th 584.52, 1408.33 =>   6.42 [50Km; 75359@21:30] It is JUNE isn't it?
28th 593.16, 1414.67 => 14.88 [75363@22:00] Sunny, then scattered clouds, then spread-out jet trails.
29th 599.19, 1419.11 => 10.47 [35Km;55Km; 75380@21:00] Sun, scattered clouds, sun, power failure cut into collection time.
30th 608.33, 1425.68 => 15.71 [55Km; 75396@21:30] Mostly sunny, scattered clouds. (What, no spreading jet trails?) Hot 20°! Maybe it's June after all! Oh, wait... June is over.

01st 619.76, 1432.49 => 18.24 [75402@21:30] Mostly sunny.
02d  622.31, 1434.00 =>   4.06 [75406@21:30] Rain. Oh well, we needed it. Cold. Didn't need that.
03rd 632.04, 1439.63 => 15.36 [40Km;Laundry; 75422@21:30] clouds, cool AM,PM, but sunny & warm throughout middle of day.
04th 641.71, 24.75** => 15.17 [55Km; 75433@21:00] Some sun, some clouds. **The meter quit working - blank display! Est. 5.50 KWH; Replaced meter.

Daily KWH from solar panels. (Compare June 2020 with May 2020 & with June 2019.)

(Each Day)
May 2020 (11 panels)
June 2020 (11 panels)
June 2019 (11 Panels)

Total KWH

Monthly Tallies: Solar Generated KWH [Power used from grid KWH]
March 1-31: 116.19 + ------ + 105.93 = 222.12 KWH - solar [786 KWH - used from grid]
April - 1-30: 136.87 + ------ + 121.97 = 258.84 KWH [608 KWH]
May  - 1-31: 156.23 + ------ + 147.47 = 303.70 KWH [543 KWH] (11th solar panel connected on lawn on 26th)
June - 1-30: 146.63 + 15.65 + 115.26 = 277.54 KWH [374 KWH] (36V, 250W Hot Water Heater installed on 7th)
July  - 1-31: 134.06 + 19.06 + 120.86 = 273.98 KWH [342 KWH]
August 1-31:127.47 + 11.44+91.82+(8/10)*96.29 = 307.76 KWH [334 KWH] (12th panel connected on lawn Aug. 1)
Sept.- 1-30: 110.72 + 15.30 + 84.91 = 210.93 KWH   [408 KWH] (solar includes 2/10 of 96.29)
Oct.  - 1-31:  55.67 + 13.03 + 51.82 = 120.52 KWH, solar [635 KWH - from grid]
Nov. - 1-30:  36.51 +   6.31 + 26.29 =   69.11 KWH, solar [653 KWH - from grid]
Dec.  - 1-23: 18.98 +   .84* + 11.70 =   31.52 KWH, solar + wind [711 KWH + 414 (while away) = 1125 from grid]
Jan.  - 6-31: 17.52 + ------* + 10.61  =  28.13 KWH, solar+ wind [1111 KWH from grid]
Feb.  - 1-29: 56.83 + ------* + 35.17  =  92.00 KWH, solar + wind [963 KWH from grid]
One year of solar!
March - 1-31: 111.31 +   87.05 = 198.37 KWH solar total  [934 KWH from grid]
April   - 1-30: 156.09 + 115.12 = 271.21 [784 KWH from grid]
May    - 1-31: 181.97 + 131.21 = 313.18 KWH Solar [723 KWH from grid]
June   - 1-30: 164.04 + 119.81 =283.82 KWH Solar [455 KWH from grid]

* Now the solar DC system is only running a couple of lights - not worth reporting. So there's just the 2 grid tie systems: house and "roof over travel trailer".

Things Noted - June 2020

* THIS is JUNE? More like Juneuary.

* By the 21st, the summer solstice, it was getting dark a little before 11 PM and getting light a little before 5 AM. Tell me where midnight is in this crazy clock system where we're an hour from our real time zone and then somebody threw in "DST" (Daytime Shortening Time) on top of that?

* Most of June was cloudy and cold to cool. Only occasional days gave anything like the maximum solar potential. But the last couple of days looked hopeful for a nice July.

* With the beefed up lawn panels & wiring and an auspicious start to the weather, my July solar power collection could be a record.

Electricity Storage (Batteries)

Turquoise Battery Project: Long lasting, low cost, high energy batteries

   Wow... With everything ready to make what should be the best cell so far... yet again... Sorry, no report!

Haida Gwaii, BC Canada