Turquoise Energy Ltd. News #14

Victoria BC
Craig Carmichael  -  April 3rd 2009


Highlights - Contents:

March in Brief (summary)
* Electric Hubcap (Preliminary) Motor Making Manual Uploaded.
* Much work on web site - more to do.
* Icy weather impedes car/outdoor work.
* First driving attempt ("Production Prototype" motor): Motor moves car but is not quite yet fit for street.

Items below are posted on the Turquoise Energy Ltd. website. Only the highlight blips are included in this email. Complete newsletter:

* http://www.TurquoiseEnergy.com/news/TENews14.html
Competition !?!
* "TheWheel": electrically similar wheel motor makes many performance claims very similar to Electric Hubcap.
* they are even more optimistic about average direct-drive PMSM energy savings (50%) than my estimates (33%).
* bulkier, heavier, costlier & can't retrofit existing cars
* Their large model is running ultra-efficient hybrid busses.
Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Calculations show current phase lag is a non-issue for EH 3-phase power timing.
* Evolving designs of terminal blocks for heavy wires.
* Slow, steady progess on small details/problems during March.
* First moves car March 26th.
* After all my figuring... timing adjustment seems needed.

Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* A problem identified: cellophane needs chemical surface treatment for use as electrode separator sheet.
Electric Hubcap Motor Making Course/Workshop
* Hybridize your car (or other motor project).
* Workshop cost re-examined: $2750 all inclusive?
Innovative Product Developers Assoc.
* Meeting: Sunday, April 26th 2009, 1:30 PM, 820 Dunsmuir Rd, RSVP, 384 2626 (there's no article, just this notice.)

Complete newsletter:     http://www.TurquoiseEnergy.com/news/TENews14.html

Newsletters Index/Highlights

March in Brief

  I uploaded all the previous newsletters to the Turquoise Energy Ltd. website, and worked on the preliminary construction/installation manuals for the "production" model Electric Hubcaptm (EH) motor and uploaded it. These tasks were a major occupation for the month.
   When motor and appliance manufacturers discover on-line my "opto-electronic commutator", it will facilitate adoption of more efficient and flexible PMSM motors (including my axial flux motor designs) in place of induction motors, in everything from washing machines (especially!) and refigerators to shop tools and industrial equipment. Here is a "spin-off" benefit of my R & D work to the progress of civilization! As is typical of such novel designs, it's not practical under existing rules for the inventor to attempt to gain any reward from it.

   Someone pointed me to another direct-drive PMSM car wheel motor. E-Traction's "TheWheel" makes many of the same claims as my EH claims, but estimates 50% energy reduction where I've more conservatively been saying 33%. The EH should actually have an edge in efficiency, and their motor, as designed and configured, can't be used to retrofit existing cars.

   I picked away at the actual motor project, generally for an hour or two or three most days amongst many other things. Weather (rain, snow, and continuing icy temperatures to March 33rd) and other commitments got in the way. Various minor problems were gradually identified and overcome. (Some were unseen & unsuspected "leftovers" from February's battery spark problem.)
   By the 26th everything seemed to work, but the motor had little power. It spun better in reverse than forward. It moved the car slowly on level pavement, and nothing blew up (a tremendous plus!), but obviously there's still a problem. Judgeing by  the high currents, the timing must be off... somehow. (I thought I had the timing all worked out!)

   On the 28th I finally(!) found a nice "wok cover" end cap for the motor with its protruding trailer axle.

The "dressed up" motor on the ever elegant '84 Tercel wagon.

The sign, "Do you want to hybridize your car?", is really there as much to answer the inevitable question "What is it?" as to attract workshop participants.

   The 31st saw the motor removed again to install a "ligature" clamp (clarinet players will be familiar...) so the optics board can be rotated to find the timing angle for optimum performance. Sigh, another month and I'm still not driving electrically!

Competition ?!?

   Here's a direct drive PMSM wheel motor design from Holland, that's electro-magnetically very similar to mine. But while this design is reversed with the rotor and magnets at the outer rim, it still uses radial flux design and so their motors will be heavier (and it's unsprung weight), more complex and expensive, and too fat for the outside of a car wheel.

E-Traction direct drive wheel motor for hybrid busses - They're getting very close!

   A news report on it: http://mobile.technologyreview.com/energy/22328/page1/
   The company: http://www.e-traction.nl/

As they are also using a PMSM motor of large diameter, they make some essential claims very similar to the EH:

E-Traction TheWheeltm Claims:
(quotes clipped from website)
Turquoise Energy Electric Hubcaptm Claims: (roughly as previously stated)
"more than 90% energy efficiency" probably over 90% efficiency. (...and doubtless a bit higher than TheWheel's. [improved coils])
"delivers up to 15,000 Nm" High torque at any speed from 0 up
"direct drive traction at the only place where it matters, .....at the wheel" Direct drive efficiency: no gears, no transmission; the car wheel IS the rotor of the motor.
(same meaning)
"The greater the diameter of the motor within the wheel, the greater the torque." The axial flux Electric Hubcap's effective diameter is much greater than a typical radial flux motor, providing much more leverage of the magnetic forces, for much more torque. (same meaning)
Liquid Cooled Good air flow cooling eliminates the
need for a liquid cooling system with
its added complexities and weight.

"On average TheWheel™ uses only half the electric energy of a typical geared traction motor."

<>Average of 50% better performance
than a typical geared electric vehicle drive. (Ie, uses only 2/3 the energy.) (same meaning; differing estimate)

Since the drive efficiency of EH should be marginally better than E-Traction's, if their bottom line estimate is accurate, evidently my estimates of the savings have been erring substantially on the conservative side.


Egads!, except for being fat, heavy and expensive, this concept looks a lot like the Electric Hubcaptm! As designed, they won't go on the outside of a regular car wheel, but if they switch to axial flux, it'll be very serious (and obviously well financed) competition!

This is probably one good reason for going "open source": putting all the tech info onto the web so anyone can make and install them. The Electric Hubcap will beat them into the open market, or at least the north American market. Then Turquoise Energy Ltd. with minimal financing can start to produce complete car hybridizing kits plus key motor & controller making parts for small garages and home workshops, with a big headstart on anyone else, for a rapidly self-expanding
market that will soon become high volume. I'm sure a kit for $1500 to hybridize an existing car (excluding batteries, of course) is doable and would be a big hit! Getting the price down to $999 would be gravy.

According to the specs shown, the one electrically most similar to EH is their SM350/1, which doesn't mount on a wheel:

Power: 6.0 KW (versus 3.6 - 4 KW)
Amps - nominal: 150 (versus 100 - 110)
Amps - peak: 300 (versus (?)150)
Torque: 150-200 Nm, 600 Nm peak (versus ?)
Weight: 85 Kg (versus 22 Kg)
Diameter: 378mm (vs 330mm)
Length: 275mm (~80mm+)

Four notable specs are the power - theirs has more; the peak amps - the EH protection circuit seems to have it under better control; the weight (85Kg unsprung!); and the width - theirs is almost 11 inches!

I haven't been able, without equipment, to measure the torque of the EH. In my one attempt with a 25 pound fish weigh scale at 6" radius, the scale hanger immediately broke, the pieces flying off with force - and IIRC that was with 12 or 24 volts, not the full 36.)

They are developing or have a new model specifically for cars, the SM450. Torque is claimed as 400 Nm on one page and 1200 Nm on another. It's not shown on their specs chart with the others. Wheel diameter is 450mm (~18"), necessitating a thin wall "low profile" tire.

They may get the weight down to where it's usable on a wheel made specifically for it, but they aren't going to get the sort of weight that can make it into a low-cost add-on for an existing car, which is where the high-volume business opportunity lies.

Although there are many similarities, they are going to have to considerably alter their designs if they are going to compete with the Electric Hubcap, but it would certainly appear they have the resources and the know-how to do so if they wish once they've seen the Turquoise Energy website & the Electric Hubcap designs.

The Electric HubcapTM Vehicle Drive Motor
March Gory Details

  On March third I thought the controller was ready to put in the car save for drilling some holes for screws to attach it. That night I had a dream where I was checking out the motor controller. A voice said "It's only prudent to test the pins" - nothing vivid, just a few seconds. Okay, then... ready except for screw holes and testing the transistor pins!
   On the fifth I got to it again, and put the ohmmeter on it. I had decided to remove the wires (some rather crispy) from the bottom of the circuit board to the transistors, and solder new ones on the top side. I couldn't see the circuit traces, mostly running on the now hidden bottom of the mounted board. There was a short circuit and two identical wrong connections, any of which would have kept the board from working and possibly fried it in short order!
   Of course, that board was made with a completely different layout in mind and is now rather chaotic. The production board layout (that I have yet to tackle) will be set up with the connection points all in an orderly row along the top edge.

New aluminum wiring box with controller spread across the lid. Not quite visible here are the "fan" heat sink fins of aluminum roofing flashing clamped on the outside of the cover behind the big transistors.

   On the 20th, I finally got up the courage to try 36 volts. A couple of MOSFETs and their fuses blew. On the 21st, after fixing (yet another) problem on the circuit board (probably created by the February burnout), I spun it with 36 volts and it seemed fine.
   But when I disconnected the test controls and hooked up the real operator controls at the front of the car, things started going wrong again. The motor took off like a banshee without touching the gas pedal, as soon as I clicked the switch on. The low-speed protection circuit wasn't limiting the current, and It blew all the fuses. Not yet aware just what was happening, I put in bigger fuses, 40 A instead of 30 A (80 A per phase instead of 60 A). Two of those blew almost the moment I flipped it on.
   I must say, I'd become almost terrified to run tests lest I again end with a controller on fire and all the main driver parts blown. Blown fuses instead is a vast improvement, a hidden advantage of having a protection circuit that limits normal current to under their ratings even at startup!
   Finally I measured the resistance of the gas pedal potentiometer. Open circuit! I found a bad solder connection on the wire at the plug and fixed it. STILL open!
   But even as I checked it out I realized that a control defaulting to "over max" instead of "off" with any typical problem was not a positive design feature. The circuit will have to be changed.

Connector Evolution

   On the sixth all was ready and I started to install the controller. As usual I had a hard time trying to get the marette connectors onto the three sets of three heavy #8 wires. It was a continuing headache: I remembered spending 25 minutes one time making these three simple triple connections.
   Surprisingly, such terminal blocks as exist (besides telephone wire blocks) seem to only tie two smaller wires together, not three and not heavy ones. I guess electricians usually have lots of room and wire length for the marettes, which do after all make good connections.

   But enough was enough! I made a wooden connector block with three 1/4" bolts sticking out to hold the wires. This necessitated soldering lugs on the wires (and buying them).
   Somehow that seemed to use up the whole afternoon.

   That sunny afternoon was followed about 10 days of rain and snow! ...in Victoria ...in March!

   In the paper on April first was something about a "Pacific Decadal Oscillation" (PDO) bringing cold weather to the west coast. It must have been an "April fools" article... it doesn't explain the cold temperatures elsewhere and
no mention was made of the fact that the last 10.7 year sunspot cycle was (IIRC) over 12 years long, the weakest on record, which will naturally bring a decade of cold, wet weather (worldwide), after the strong cycle that brought the warm 1990's. Shortest (strongest) cycle since they've been recorded brought the 1930's "dust bowl" years.
   Someone said one day in early March that it was -45 (!) in Edmonton. I grew up in Edmonton and it was Never that cold! About -30 (F), in December or January, is the worst I can remember! Even in absolute temperature terms, 228 degrees K (-45 C) is scarcely 3/4 the thermal energy of a balmy summer day (300K).
But I digress.

Wire Connector Block #1 in fine Cambodian rosewood,
with terminal bolts protruding

Underside of block, showing recesses to prevent bolts touching chassis
   After I installed it, it looked like the lugs could potentially twist around and short between the posts. I could work around that, but I decided it just wasn't a very good arrangement for a final product.

   What I had really wanted all along was something like the screw-down strips found in circuit breaker boxes for the neutral and ground wires. So I decided I would just have to make something like those.
   I bought a 3/4" square rod of copper.
   As I walked in my front door with it, I had a sudden flash of a much easier to make connector block that didn't need the solid copper piece at all! But since I'd just bought it, and since it seemed like a very good design, I decided to persist.
   At the end I drilled a left and right side hole right through it, big enough to insert #8 wires. Then I cut it to 1/2" long with an angle grinder. Into this "cube" I drilled and threaded smaller holes for "machine screws" (AKA small bolts) to clamp the wires down with, and a center hole for a mounting bolt.
   Off the wires came the lugs, so soon after soldering them on! (That's product development - the instruction book has yet to be written; "standard practice" has yet to be worked out!

Second version connector block, in Pacific Dogwood. This is the one I used.
(The same mounting bolt pattern as the previous block was retained, so I didn't have to un-mount the wiring box and make more holes.)

   But, having thought of another and simpler way of doing the same thing, I just had to try it out! This idea used short sections (1") of small "1/8 inch" (actually larger) threaded brass plumbing pipes. These have a thick wall... evidently for threading a bolt into! Making an unfinished sample (one pipe) took less than an hour. The pipe was big enough to stick in a #6 wire, or two #8's. One set of threads stripped when I tried to do up the bolt. I turned the pipe over and drilled 2 slightly smaller holes in the other side. It was tougher threading them, but the result seemed more solid - at least, I did them up pretty tight and they didn't strip.

Third version connector block, in hard, gorgeous Lilac wood.
The wire clamp bolts hold the brass pipe in place with no extra mounting bolt.
The pipe can rattle around just a bit.

   I note that the inside of the pipe was a bit corroded, whereas since I'd just drilled it, the holes in the copper cubes were clean and shiny. Probably the brass pipe should be cleaned inside before use, which (unless you can think of an easier way to do it than filing it) probably negates some of the labor saving.

   So that was four evolving versions of connector terminals counting the original unsatisfactory marettes. The copper cubes is doubtless the best and most reliable version.
   I suppose I should rejoice that some sort of custom terminal block like that will doubtless be one of the products Turquoise Energy will supply to people who want to make and install their own motors.

   I also think a heavy cable "slim-line" in-line plug and socket at the wheel to replace the marettes for the motor is in order. (There isn't room for the bulk of a regular type stove plug and socket, unless they stick out from the side of the car.)

Inductive Phase Lag

  One day I thought of a new aspect of motor operation I hadn't previously considered, and feared it might be significant. Up to that point, I'd been thinking "This is great, this optical system provides ideal timing for the coil drives, both forward and reverse!"
   But the current in an inductor, and hence the magnetism, would lag behind that "perfectly timed" applied voltage. Was the lag trivial, or was it enough that the timing depended substantially on the RPM? Did it need something like a centrifugal timing advance?
   The more I thought about this, the more concerned I became. After all, I've had to rework virtually every aspect of the motor at least twice since I started owing to failure to take various things into account. I keep finding ignorance isn't usually bliss when designing something! I finally decided I should check the inductance of the coils so I could work out the phase lag. (Oh no! - math and formulas, argh!)
   I traded a couple of supermagnets to someone who wanted them for the use of his super-duper multimeter that measured inductance, capacitance and transistor beta along with the more common functions. One lone coil read 0.60mH. (Later another meter verified the reading, showing 0.58mH.) I had thought it would be way higher, but what do I know? Any two phase wires of the assembled motor stator also read 0.60mH, the same to two decimal places, a seemingly odd co-incidence as any phase has two sets in series of three coils in parallel. If they were 6½ resistors, we'd expect 4½, but coils in proximity, ie all packed onto the same rotor, interact magnetically to increase the inductance, and evidently the result happened to be identical to one lone coil. (Other loops of wire and the other stators gave quite different and commensurate readings.)

   Given the inductance figure, we can derive the rest.

A = V*S/H.

 where A = amps, H = henries, V = volts, and S = seconds

First we want the time lag, seconds, to "full" current at maximum drive, so:

S = A*H/V

S = 90 * .00060 / 36 = 1.5 mSec

Then we want the angle the wheel rotates in 1.5 milliseconds at maximum speed. We'll call maximum speed 130 Km/Hour. The fastest that will typically be is with a smaller 13 inch wheel, 1300 RPM. 1300 R/Min = 21.67 R/Sec. In each rotation there are three electrical cycles, one every 120¼, so 65 cycles/Sec or 0.01538 seconds/cycle.

0.0015 sec phase lag / 0.01538 seconds/cycle = 0.0975 cycles phase lag.

0.0975 cyc.lag * 120 ¼/cyc = 11.7 ¼ maximum rotational lag.

   It's not trivial. Even considering half the current is flowing (or has stopped) by 6¼ lag, if the math is right it's probably just within limits for good operation. But that's the most extreme case: top highway speed with the smallest wheels and "pedal to the metal", so I'll consider that variable timing is unnecessary. (Whew!) At 3000 RPM, or perhaps even 2000, we just might have to consider means of varying the timing by RPM and current flow.

   What about a more "typical" case, 50 Km/Hour at half power?

S = A * H / V

S = 45 * .0006 / 36 = 0.00075 mS

500 RPM / 60 sec/min * 3 = 25 cyc/sec or .04 sec/cycle

.00075 / .04 = .01875 cycles lag, * 120 ¼/cycle = 2.25¼

   Again if my math and parameters are right (both a big IF!), it might be well to advance the timing slightly, about a degree. A degree fast at very low speed (also resulting in a degree slow for reverse) should be trivial, and reduces the max 11.7¼ on the highway to 10.7¼. But I will by no means guarantee that my timing slots, or the magnets or the coils, are placed to within 1¼ of accuracy to begin with!

   So it looks like in this particular instance, ignorance was bliss after all!

Turquoise Battery Project
March Gory Details

Progress has been slow on the battery project as I strive to get the car running on the Electric Hubcap motor along with other commitments.

   Luckily, I know batteries do work. I'm now working with nickel and zinc, both well known battery electrode elements. I suspect my main problems boil down to:
* poor sealing - gas leaks
* the electrode separator sheet (evidently the main culprit)
* the electrolyte.

   As to electrolyte, notwithstanding it's what others have done, I don't want to use potassium hydroxide, alkaline, electrolyte unless no neutral or acid solution works, as the nickel hydroxide has the least available energy, both amp-hours and voltage, in alkali solution. Neutral or acid is the key to getting higher energy density. Potassium chloride (KCl), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and perhaps magnesium perchlorate (MgClO4) should be good compounds, probably in a mixture. The zinc probably requires a mixture at least somewhat acidic rather than neutral.

Electrode Separator Sheet

   Looking over some patents, it seems the cellophane needs some treatment before it will work as an electrode separator sheet the way I've been expecting it to: not just cellulose but cellulose ester or cellulose acetate or otherwise treated.
   On the 20th, I tried wetting the cellulose with oil and methylene chloride, and added some acetal ester. (Cellulose ester?) After giving it (not much) time to soak in, I put it into a test battery. It was marginally better.

   Then I started looking up "cellulose acetate". It is or was used for a number of things, including aircraft fabric dope, photographic film and fabrics. Of course, the aircraft dope is gone (though related dopes are still used for model aircraft) and buying it in some such finished form as film or fabric is likely to be counterproductive. That leaves buying it and dissolving it in acetone to make some sort of dope... or making it. Ugh! So I looked up how that might be accomplished.

   "Cellulose is treated with acetic acid and acetic anhydride to produce cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate dissolved in acetone can be cast to form a film or extruded through a spinneret to form fibers."

Acetic acid is vinegar. Unless regular grocery store vinegar is too dilute (5%) to work right, that part is easy.

   "Acetic Anhydride is a clear, colorless liquid with a very pungent, penetrating, vinegar-like odor that combines with water to form acetic acid. It is soluble in ether, chloroform and benzene. It reacts with alcohols.
   "Acetaldehyde is converted into acetic anhydride by atmospheric oxidizing the liquid acetaldehyde in the presence of a metal acetate as the catalyst (Oxidation process).

  Acetaldehyde we's got, but now we need some other acetate to make the desired acetate! Great! There was another way to make it, but it looked much harder.

   "The acyl groups (RCO) in organic anhydrides favor wide range of organic synthesis.
   "They react with water to give carboxylic acids, with alcohols or phenols to give esters, and with ammonia and amines to give amides. Acetic anhydride is used in the manufacture of cellulose acetate."

   If pure cellulose acetate plastic can be had anywhere, it should dissolve in acetone to make a "dope". I'm not betting on finding it.
   I looked for cellulose acetate model aircraft dope on the web and at BC Shaver shop, but no luck. They've switched to more "modern" formulas.

First Proposed Workshop-Course

   Here are a few details I've decided on for the first Electric Hubcap workshop course. I have a feeling I won't be able to start it in May the way things have been going, but we'll see -- things just might develop rapidly.

   Class size will be limited to four particpants, who each have at least some experience with fabricating and installing things. Classes and workshops will be held at 820 Dunsmuir Road, which is not without some facilities for the purpose. Hopefully it will be spring or summer weather for the vehicle installations. Sessions will continue until the installations are done -- I won't be pushing things. Days and times are TBA. (I suspect Saturdays may be best for the most people - feedback welcome.)
   I will probably hold more than one workshop series, but I think the first one will be the most exciting one for all. After all, it will be the only first one, a sort of beginning of a new age of automotive transport, and while the basics are covered, there will be more opportunity for exploration and discovery of more suitable techniques, materials and implementations. Improvements will of course make their way into the instruction maanuals on the web, and will set standards for future more "cut and dried" workshop-courses.

   The course fee (assuming one typical motor) will be $2750. A $1350 deposit will be required so I can buy the necessary materials. This will be non-refundable once I've started purchasing things. (But you are welcome to sell your spot in the class to someone else if you change your mind about attending after paying the deposit - as long as I'm not out of pocket I'm happy.)
   Roughly the first $1300 pays for all materials except batteries and battery chargers, and the remaining $1450 or so is my take for preparing course manuals, locating and buying the materials in advance, instruction time, and for having invented it and worked out the details and circuit board designs and layouts, which occupied me much of the past year.
   If you wish to do a project other than one 10.5" diameter motor on a car wheel, please let me know and we'll make adjustments to the parts cost portion of the fee. (Note that a small metal lathe is on hand if a custom axle or other such part is needed. Lathe work isn't required for the standard automotive motor.)

   The driver's controls will consist of a gas pedal position rheostat and a forward-off-reverse drive switch. These feed the electronic motor controller that has all the essential circuitry to safely run the motor. A voltmeter mounted on the dash will be an asset to monitor the state of the 36 volt batteries.
   In the coming months I plan to also make and program an improved microcontroller based control board that will add limited regenerative braking, battery charge while driving on gas, and a driver display (select: voltage, amps, speed, motor temperature...). This will be provided free to "alumni" when it's ready.
   The regenerative braking will be limited only because the motor is only on one wheel, and so will pull the vehicle to one side. Only a small amount of that is tolerable.

   Better batteries for electric propulsion will be the subject (and product) of future workshops.

   You can see the estimated costs of the parts in the list below. Anything you wish to provide yourself can be deducted from the deposit (or from the fee as long as I haven't ordered it yet).

   If you want me to provide ready-made coils, wiring box, motor controller (or, eg, just solder the components on the PCB thereof) or other components rather than make them yourself, I'll do them for extra charges.
   I do plan to make these sorts of items available (maybe even a whole kit) when parts production commences.

Materials Included:

$value * Description

Motor mechanical parts:
230 * Rotors & Hub/Axle/Bearings (show me your vehicle in advance to see what fits, or supply yourself for 230$ discount - you may do well at an auto wrecker. Tip: Firebird hub/axles remove easily with large torx wrench, 4 bolts. Others: check for possible 2nd set of (inaccessable) bolts from back side.)
10  * Wheel extension nuts
20  * .5" x 1" square tube for stator arms
10  * Steel bar
  5  * PVC Cover shell
12  * Misc. Hardware

(st 287$)

Motor Electro/magnetic/optical parts:
75  * Magnet wire for coils
15  * Iron for coil cores (1" nail gun finishing nail strips)
  3  * Insulating spray paint
  3  * Motor Varnish
  5  * Hi-temp coil paint
20 * Misc hardware
* AWG#8 leads
20  * Optics PCB & components
11  * 5-pin, 2 pin "trailer" plugs & sockets
  2  * Temperature sensor
  5  * Rotating slot piece
80  * 12 - 1" x 2" x 0.5" Supermagnets
  3 * Epoxy Steel magnet Glue

(st: 227$)

Wiring Box Parts

20  * Aluminum Box pieces, screws
  5  * Heat dissipation fins (Alum. flashing pcs.)
40  * Battery cables
12  * AWG#6 or #8 'cab tire' cable to motor
  4  * misc heavy wire for box
  7  * Copper to make heavy wire terminal blocks (why cant you buy these?)
30  * Main Power switch
100 * Power contactor "solenoid" (12v coil, continuous duty, from Ign. key.)
36  * 3 - 7uF filter capacitors (motor "run" cap.s, non polar)
  3  * 3 - filter varistors

(st: 257)

Motor Controller parts

  6 * Aluminum mounting plate
  8 * Aluminum transistor/heat sink bars
40 * 12 - IRFP3206 60v 120a power MOSFETransistors
  6 * 6 - 40A automotive fuses & solder lugs
  6 * 6 - 100uF/100v filter capacitors
* Misc connection wire
60 * Motor controller PCB, electronic components & plug-in sockets
* Misc bolts & hardware

(st: 116$)

Cab/Misc Parts
24  * Gas Pedal Potentiometer
5    * Fwd/Off/Rev Switch
220 * Cab Heater / windshield defogger (500W, 36V "golf cart" fan-heater)
15  * #10 cable for heater
100? * Brake electrical vacuum assist unit
25 * Battery state-of charge indicator (for 36v Pb-acid batteries, "golf cart")

(st: 389$)

(GT: 1276$)

Parts NOT Supplied
* Batteries (Six 12 volt, "size 27", 50 pound, "deep cycle" batteries are around $600. Or, six 6 volt "golf cart" batteries are around $900, and they evidently last better and will take you farther on a charge. You might get a quantity discount, especially if 2 or more people go in together. "Factory seconds" of "size 27", if available, are around $50 - $300 for 6. Shop around! Three 12V "27" batteries will work, but the driving range will not be very impressive. If you can find Ni-Cd or Ni-Mh at economic prices, they should be better than Pb-acid. Personally I wouldn't touch lithium, but who knows?)
* 36 volt Battery charger
* Outlet timer to turn off charger

* If there's anything not mentioned anywhere, please ask!
(Naturally, I hope to have the smaller, lighter, new chemistry "Turquoise Batteries" ASAP, but something is needed in the meantime!)

Victoria BC