Turquoise Energy Ltd.
Monthly Newsletters Index Volume 1: 2008 through 2012
Volume 2 Index: 2013 -


To receive Turquoise Energy Newsletter (short version) by e-mail monthly, please e-mail
c r a i g @ s a e r s , c o m
and ask to be put on the newsletters e-mail list.

Hint: To find the latest and greatest ideas and techniques, search from the most recent newsletter back for the topic in question. To follow the history of development of a project, go the other way.

Latest Overview:
5 years in review (#59)
4 years of green energy projects (#47)

Project Topics:

Power Generation
*I  Ocean Wave Power: 1/2 price alternative to Site C Peace River hydro (mostly early newsletters)
*I  Solar Cells: a titanium dioxide nanocrystalline glaze for improved light absorption: could improve solar panel and flat collector effectiveness 25-40% (#28, 29 also 27, 42, 48) An array of solar PV panels in the Okanagan would also be substantially less costly than Site C Dam, and would occupy much less land area (even without the improvement).
* Better Windplant Blades: A simple idea for notched blades to reduce noise, increase efficiency - as used on house fans (PP-epoxy) (#34)
* Better Windplant siting: string them like gondolas between mountains? (#44)
*A  Self-turning Magnet Machine & theory of thermomagnetism (#51...)
*A  Solar "DC Grid Tie" Electricity Project (#52...)

Electric Hubcap Car Drive System
*A$  Electric Hubcap Motor 11.5" O.D. x 4", 5KW (most newsletters)
*A  Electric Weel Motor 28" O.D., 15 KW triple (from #36 (concept) & #37 (project commencement))
*A  Turquoise Motor Controller (most newsletters - BEST: IR2133 version with current ramp modulation (CRM or 'direct torque control') #41, 42, (43)...)
*'F'  Mechanical or Magnetic Torque Converter ("MTC" - most newsletters from #15 on.)
*I  Planetary gears project (owing to not having made a good MTC yet; later as a 'final drive ratio' gearset following torque converter - #39, 40)
*A  PGTC - Planetary Gear Variable Ratio Torque Converter (#51...) A torque converter design that works!
*F  Nanocrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores - Unsuccessful per se, but had successful offshoots:
      - Ilmenite (FeTiO3) paramagnetic coating: magnetically conductive path from wires to core (#37),
      - DSSC nanocrystalline titanium glaze for solar collector front glass "sand pebbles lenses". (See "Dye Sensitized Solar Cells")
*F  Electric Hubcap Outboard Motor (#32, 33, 34 (Honda conversion)
*A  Mushroom Outboard: an Electric Hubcap Outboard from scratch (#46,47...57)
*A Sprint Car electric conversion - with ultra-efficient FWD drivetrain including mechanical torque converter followed by 3 to 1 chain drive reduction.

Electricity Storage

*A  Turquoise Battery (most newsletters): First successful battery #39. KMnO4-Mn #49 & later issues
*F  Economical NiMH Dry Cell Car Battery (#35, 36, 37 - Replaced by Battery Sticks)
*A$ Handy Battery Sticks (NiMH D dry cells in long plastic pipes, 6V (1'), 12V (2' or quintos: 5 pipes x 7" to fit PbPb battery boxes), Super Battery Stick (70 amp-hours, 12V) (#42, 43)
*$  Sodium Sulfate Battery Additive (triples or quadruples life of lead-acid batteries - allows renewal of old ones)


*F  Electric Car Heater (#22, 23, 25)
*A$  LED low energy House Lighting Project (#41, 42, 43) - Also low energy LED car lighting.
*I  Pulsejet Steel Plate Cutter (#31, 32, 33, 34)
*F  Simple capacitive discharge resistance battery tab spot welder  (#30, 32)
*A  Peltier Element shallow chest, superinsulated refrigerator (#54, 55)
*A  Magnetic refrigeration & heat pumping (#55)
*-  CNC Farming Machine (Concept #57)

Societal Problems and Structures for Advance

* Department of Progress (#21, 35)
* The Disgrace of the Patent System (#28 [death by patent examples: ?, ?, #55])
* Who Killed the Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery (#7)
* Shorten the Working Hours! (#54)
* Various other editorials in many issues
* Also see my booklet (2003, Rev 2012):
   Fundamental Principles of Democratic Government: Towards Utopian Systems of Governance.

Status Codes
A - Active
I - active but pretty Inactive to comatose
F - Finished or otherwise ended
$ - Product(s) For Sale

Newer Issues: Volume 2 Index: 2013 -

TENews #59  -  January 4th 2013 (covers December 2012)

Features: New: The Mini Electric Hubcap Motor (see "Motor Systems")

Month In Brief (Project Summaries... and little things not warranting separate report headings)
- Mini motor, bike rim motor, 3D printing, battery construction, Simple Ocean Wave Power!
5 Years In Review (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- 5 years of green energy projects - The coming New Epoch.
Electric Hubcap Motor Systems

* New 6 coils "Mini Electric Hubcap" motor: 24V, 3KW, 0-3000 RPM, 9" O.D. x 4", ~17 pounds.
* Ceramic "Cup Magnets": Cheaper strong motor magnets?, Magnets for bike "wheel arc" motors?
* Start of arc motor for bicycle
Planetary Gear Torque Converter & Ultra-Efficient Vehicle Transmission Project
* Torque Tests (Electric Hubcap is about 1.5 foot-pounds per 10 Amps.) - Divide by Zero Error?
* An ideal flat drive belt?: Polypropylene or Nylon Strapping
* Clutch system for Sprint: idler/belt tension wheel (of cast aluminum), clutch pedal...
Turquoise Battery Project
* Conductive Porous pocket electrode plates
* Filler/airlock cap & complete Mn-Fe test cell

TENews #58  -  December 4th 2012

Features: Peltier Element Heat Pump for Home & EV Heating (see Month in Brief)

Month In (relatively) Brief (Project Summaries... and many little things not warranting separate report headings)
- 12V Peltier element Fridge is cold enuf: probe has been reading 2º too high! - Peltier Element Heat Pump for home & EV heating - 3D Printing: a 12V NiMH battery case - Battery Making - "Mini Electric Hubcap" + Bicycle Rim Motors - Mushroom Outboard: preparing for 'pot metal' propeller casting - aluminum casting for heatsinks - Torque Converter & Sprint Conversion - Greentech Exchange Solar Event, Cheap solar heater, & Crowd Funding.
In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- Banking and the Fiscal Cliff: history and beyond it
Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* Balanced ropes + 1 to 1 flat belt + trial with no great results
Mushroom Outboard Motor Project
* Preparing to cast the propeller
CNC Farming Machine Project
* How did I get onto another project? Don't I have enough unfinished projects?
* 18' Wooden Ladder Gantry: easy to make into a supported truss - wheels & tracks - motors - drive belts
Superinsulated 12VDC Peltier Element Fridge Project
* Is colder than measured - cold enough to use
* Commercial & Homemade Aerogel possibilities
Large Format NiMH Batteries - Take 3
* 3D printed, ventilated, stackable 12 volt battery cases minimize size and added weight.
Turquoise Battery Project
* First porous plastic electrode using my 3D printed electrode pockets is...
* An iron electrode with improved current capacity, charge rate and charge retention
* "Graphite Foil" & "Flexible Graphite" likely best solution for posode current colletors (now on order)

TENews #57  -  November 3rd 2012

Features: 12V Solar Fridge freezes ice during day; melting ice keeps it cool at night - reduces battery requirements - Magnet Machine Experiments - CNC Farming

Month In Brief (Summaries)
- 3D printer: Wow, it works! Designed and made lots of stuff. - CAT Standard 12VDC plugs & sockets, my "Green Drinks" video clip: http://mobilizinghope.com/2012/10/10/craig-carmichael-inventor/ - etc.
In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- Heat: Units of Confusion - Geothermal green energy can't get investment: need Dept. of Progress - Russian food self sufficiency sponsored by government - Petroleum Dependency: Electrify the Railroads! - Electric & CNC Farming Machines - Electric Fishing Boats - How much food reserve to have? - Visionary inventor Ovshinsky dies at age 89.
Electric Hubcap System
* Sprint car: Flat Belt Drive and printed plastic flat belt pulleys
* Mushroom Outboard: Plastic Printed Foot?
* Mushroom Outboard: More efficient Propeller?
Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* Plate to hold bearing to hold planets assembly centered (then rain, rain, rain :(
Mushroom Outboard Motor Project
* More Efficient Propeller
Solar Electricity Project
* Solar 12 VDC house wiring: Main circuits and distribution panel
* CAT 12 volt DC sockets, Plugs, wall plates
Superinsulated 12V Thermoelectric Fridge & Freezer - Peltier Module Heat Pumping
* Melting Ice Chest + smart control keeps fridge cold overnight: uses power mostly in daytime
Turquoise Battery Project
* Printing Porous Electrode Pockets, Zinc
Magnetic Motion Machine Project
* 3D printed parts help do prototype

TENews #56  -  October 2nd 2012

Hilights: Car Moves with Planetary Gear Torque Converter: variable conversion principle proven!
12 Volt DC "CAT" Standard Plugs and Receptacles: a specification defined (RFC - request for comments?)

Month In Brief (Summaries)
- Just in time torque converter - my BCIT/VEVA talk on my projects including torque converter - heat pumping - 12 VDC wiring and plug & receptacle specification "CAT" defined - 3D printer almost ready

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- Iran - NAM summit - Financial collapse to free world from dead-end grip of corrupt kleptocracy

Electric Hubcap System
* External PWM for Motor Controller in Sprint car
* IR2133-V2 motor controller woes (-V1 worked great throughout tests!)

Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* Torque converter mods & tests #2 to #5, Sept. 6, 8, 10, 12: No poop.
* #6, Sept. 14th: Doubtful "last chance" rope balancing idea gets car moving nicely, proves PGTC idea is a viable variable transmission.
* Next plan: 3D print a plastic planetary gear to order, with drive belt pulley on the outside rim.

Solar Electricity Project
* "Smart" fridge control eliminates use of backup batteries or grid power to run solar powered fridges: sensing supply voltage and allowing slight overnight temperature rises should almost eliminate running superinsulated solar fridge except when sun is shining.
* 12VDC Main Breaker Box
* 12VDC Standard receptacle & plug definition

Superinsulated Thermoelectric Fridge & Freezer - Peltier Module Heat Pumping
* Further fridge construction work
* Stronger Peltier module
* Melting ice as overnight cold storage with 'smart' solar fridge control

Magnetic Heat Pumping
* Designs and materials
* Attaining strongest field from permanent supermagnets
* Test on first "stack of [2] boxes" discloses design problem: Cu magnetic heating. Changes are required.

TENews #55  -  September 3rd 2012

Hilight: Magnetic Refrigeration & Home Heating: vast energy saving potential?

Month In Brief
- 1912 Detroit Electric Car - 12V Fridge - Magnetic Refrigeration - Sprint car tests - 3D printer

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
Our dysfunctional, failing society: - Einstein Refrigerator 1930. Even Albert Einstein fell into the "technology death by patent" trap - Self centered versus love centered training? - Democraship, the kleptocracy, and state terrorism - an effective cancer cure and why it'll go nowhere - Widespread crop failures magnify financial crisis problems - Victims of Bank Fraud.

Electric Hubcap System
* Motor Assembly
* Brake Vacuum Assist - pump & reservoir
* Safety: "Stealth" electric cars should make warning noise when in proximity to people?
* Sprint car: motor, controller and battery installed. It moved a little: the motor controller seems to be the problem rather than the torque converter... makes the motor "wimpy".
* The Planetary Gear Torque Converter Looks Like a Keeper!
* Motor controller improvements.
* A new type of control modulation: combined CRM + PWM.

Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project: Converter seems to work acceptably in car!
* 3D Printed plastic planetary gear/torque converter parts?

Solar Electricity Project
* Electricity is already 40¢/KWH in Hawaii, making solar a 3-5 year payback.
* Super battery stick proves less than super - also beware voltage drops to batteries!

Superinsulated Thermoelectric Fridge & Freezer
* Single Peltier cooling works best after all. (Also can work well without cold-side fan.)
* Better fridge shapes can provide more internal volume with less exterior wall surface to keep cool - octagon, Low walls and terraced sunken floor, geodesic dome.
* Dividing fridge with a wall(s) allows sufficient cooling of a smaller space in summer heat, ice compartment.
* Magnetic Refrigeration & Home Heating - world's best research into it: Victoria BC -  a design implementation - rare earths ordered - potential for thermomagnetic motion machines using gadolinium.
* Regular Chest Freezer used as low energy Refrigerator

Turquoise Battery Project
* Project devolves to assembling 3D printer to make electrode pockets etc.
* Battery Making Video planned.

TENews #54  -  August 4th 2012

Hilight: Peltier Element 12V Refrigerator

Month In Brief
- Solar - thermo-electric fridge - Thermomagnetic theory supported by ambient heat powered battery.

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
* Machines have increasingly done the grunt work for decades. When will labor saving devices finally start to shorten everybody's working hours?
* "Normalcy Factor": populations caught by surprise in changing times.
* Solar PV Kickstart in Germany (next: Ontario Canada): paying extra for solar power to grid has caused homeowner installations that eliminate need for other new power plants.

Electric Hubcap System
* Plasticy primer prevents ilmenite coil coatings from flaking off (yay, at last!)

Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* EDM Machining of sun gear: keyslot made - can now get on with Sprint car motor/converter installation.

Solar Electricity Project
* Power Price Point (probable power cost increases may soon make solar economic)
* PV Solar Panel roof mounting, connecting - fuses, isolation diodes, breaker.
* Spinoff project: Superinsulated Thermoelectric Fridge & Freezer
* Voltage: 24 volts would be great, but most appliances are 120VAC - or else 12VDC.
* Max Power Point DC to DC converter/CV charge controller/dump load driver unit?
* Cases for multiple voltages & 3D Printed Plastic 12V D Cell battery cases?

Superinsulated Thermoelectric Fridge & Freezer
* Shallow chest format with hinged lid (or lid sections)
* Peltier cooling elements & 12VDC cooler cooling module
* Peltiers in thermal series; peltier module heat pump/heater; two-stage peltier makes frost in room temperature environment
* Exploring Insulation; Construction / Bill of Materials / Tests during construction
* Conclusions & Product Possibilities: TE temp. control; TE 2-stage peltier cooling unit; TE Fridges; TE Heat Pumps

LED Lighting Project
* Linear, low dropout voltage, constant current regulator gives supply voltage flexibility.
* Circuit board production: laser printed artwork iron onto board; novel etching solutions.
* New way to make printed circuits boards?: artwork is thin layer of 3D plastic (or wax?), 3D printed directly onto the PCB?

Turquoise Battery Project
* 3D Printer kit arrives - 3D Printer Software / Conductive ABS printing filaments / Zinc flakes / Osmium
* Recharge with ambient heat energy?

TENews #53  -  July 2nd 2012

- The Mushroom Electric Outboard Motor [Design]
- 3D plastic printing to revolutionize home battery making

Month In Brief

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- War on Greed - Mercy & forgiveness - How to stop the Peace River Site C Dam

Electric Hubcap System
* Improved Outboard From Scratch Design: The "Mushroom Outboard"!
* U-joint 90º Drive - socket wrench U-joints - tests show it works fine.
* Sprint Car: Torque converter is ready; needs motor, controller, batteries.
* New motor plate drill templates: from hand calculator to... spreadsheet G-code.

Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* Planetary gear torque converters are already in use! - Toyota Prius & more.
* Sprint 'clutch' linkage installation.

Solar Electricity Project
* Modules of the "DC Grid Tie" unit.
* Solar Hot Water addition (doubles electricity savings) - plastic/rubber mat collector, & Pump Control Module.

Turquoise Battery Project
* RepRap: 3D printing of plastic parts will create battery making revolution
* Conductive carbon fiberized ABS printing plastic for positive electrodes ("posodes")
* 3D electrode pockets from Camosun College/VICAMP
* Next Mn negative electrode ("negode") with latest everything
* Mn negode doesn't work in KOH electrolyte (pH 14) - discharges spontaneously
* Mn negode does work in KCl electrolyte (at moderately alkaline pH)
* Cells need seal to keep O2 out to prevent self discharge

TENews #52  -  June 2nd 2012

New: Solar 'grid or no grid' Home Electricity Project

Month In Brief
- web site - new Hubcap motor; outboard motor (construction delayed by trying to get CAD/CAM software going... is it worth it?) - Turquoise Battery development - Making small scale home solar more practical

In Passing (Miscellaneous topics and editorial comments)
- Dept. of Progress = Dept. of Patent Administration? - A Sodium Sulfate/PbPb acid battery report - Solectria electric car - Google search "spying" and search results "censorship", and a better, private, search engine (ixquick.com) - European cars get better mileage? - France's new president Hollande... a real leader? - International finance: a house of cards - Homelessness amidst a nearly static population and an adequate supply of housing?

Electric Hubcap System
* New motor, outboard(s)
* Sprint NiMH battery box
* Rotor rim case mold troublesome - improved technique & material should help rather than new mold
* How much power? - to run a car

Planetary Gear Torque Converter Project
* No power is lost by the slipping gear
* Motor/generator with microcontroller control as slip control
* A more ideal planetary gear for torque converters?: large surface areas, self lube plastic...
* Other types of three element gears would also work: eg, differential gear
* Review of some other potential types of torque converters (now mostly redundant)
* Torque converter for Sprint car: - shift/tension clutch lever

Magnetic Motion Devices
* Temperature drop tests: results negative but inconclusive so far

Solar Electricity Project

* Why? - save energy, cost; grid independence
* How? - The "DC Grid Tie" - electricity grid or no grid, sunshine or no sunshine
* What? - are good loads to connect - Hot water preheater "dump load" to utilize any surplus energy

Turquoise Battery Project
* Positrode current collectors with grafpoxied carbon fiber (best yet, I expect)
* Simplest zinc electroplating
* MnZn sintered electrodes - brittle but high current - trouble with using MnO2 as the Mn
* pure Zn strip current collectors & better Mn pocket negatrodes
* Are 3-D printers ideally suited to make ABS electrode baskets?

TENews #51  -  May 4th 2012

Month In Brief (Summaries)
- New Planetary Gear type of Torque Converter - Battery Production, design - Motor Controllers at last (yay!) - Highlight:
My Theory of "Thermomagnetism", and Self Turning Thermomagnetic Machines - Electric Cars are happening... so does my stuff have a place? - Black spots on a white background.

Electric Hubcap System
* Motor controller wiring improvements.
* Motor controller IR2133 V2 PCBs arrived; new motor controller made (works).
* New motor molded; made another new mold to further improve them.
* 13.8 Volt, 5 Amp chargers for NiMH powered systems: 30$ for a 36V, 5A charging system.

Mechanical Magnetic Mechanical Magnetic Impulse
Planetary Gear  Torque Converter Project
* Planetary Gear as a mechanical torque amplifier for indefinitely variable gear ratios (Eureka!)
* Types of Torque Amp Controls: manual clutch, centrifugal clutches, magnetic brake, generator brake
* Torque converter for Sprint car

Thermomagnetic drive devices
* Earth's magnetic field rotary device principle checked - but then... why not any magnetic field?
* Is that "perpetual motion"?
* Rationale: my theories of "thermomagnetism".
* A test to prove the theory - & a magnetic refrigerator.
* Thermomagnetic Machine ideas, designs, builds & tests.

Turquoise Battery Project
* ChangHong won't make any NiMn batteries because they have no track record - Yuk!
* Alternative Negative Electrode Construction - high conductivity, amenable to DIY.
* New positrode construction too

TE News #50  -  April 4th 2012

Month In Brief (Summaries)
* Ni-Mn alkaline batteries work, and may be made in China by ChangHong battery company
* Editorial: Social Sustainability

Feature: Magnetic Field Spacecraft Drive - The future of space travel? and Magnetic Field Motor?

Magnetic Impulse Torque Converter Project

* Slow going putting together motorbike converter, then wrong chain type
* Torque pulses are too weak - sigh!
* And now for something completely different: centrifugal clutches

NiMH Battery Project
* Better economy for electric mowers
* Battery sticks V3: custom rolled plastic tubes - thinner, lighter; better fit in tight places

Turquoise Battery Project
* Graphite powder in negatrode causes slight self discharge? - ugh!
* Zincate Solution - zincate on aluminum: no self discharge
* Contacted ChangHong Battery Co. about having them make NiMn flooded alkaline cells.
* Zincated aluminum grill spiral wrapped electrode: a new and simple way to make an electrode?, with better current capacity.

TE News #49  -  March 1st 2012

Feature: 2 Volt Salty Batteries - 3 Major Advances in a month improve state of the art!
* Perforated Hard Plastic Pocket Electrodes simplify "DIY" battery making
* Manganese Negative Electrode Works: Green, cheap, high energy, long life 2 volt cells
* Nickel Manganate Positive Electrode: high conductivity improves battery performance

Month In Brief (Summaries)
* Much of the month was spent making the best new chemistry - and new construction - batteries yet
* I talk on the Turquoise Battery Project and DIY battery making at Ideawave 2012
* Electric vehicle club meeting(s)

No Project Reports on: Electric Hubcap system, Weel motor, Sprint car conversion, Electric outboard from scratch, DSSC solar cells, Pulsejet steel plate cutter, NiMH batteries

Magnetic Impulse Torque Converter Project

* Idea: the magnetic impulse rotors should make enough torque to run dirt bike as-is, without 2nd mechanical hammer stage. (as an interim project, for March).

LED Lighting Project

* Adding switches to light fixtures
* Hanging LED wall lights to replace table lamps?
* Turquoise Energy is finally accepted into Energy Star program

Turquoise Battery Project
* Perforated Plastic Pocket Electrodes: Evolution of a whole new "DIY" way of making batteries.
   - rigid perforated plastic container encapsulates compacted electrode ingredients
   - perforated flat plate electrodes (perf. plastic sheets glued with ribs into thin boxes)
   - perforated square cylinder electrodes (perf. plastic sheets heated & bent into square tubes)
* Problems with negatrode self-discharge solved! The metal or carbon current collector, not the chemicals, has been bubbling hydrogen! Must use zinc or silver or alloys thereof.
* High energy manganese negatrode works: renders NiFe, NiCd, NiMH and NiZn obsolete?
* Cells can be alkaline during cycling with KCl salt electrolyte - no need for caustic KOH. Ca(OH)2 additive can make intermediate alkalinity for potentially improved characteristics and cycle life.
* Got thinner plastic, .020" styrene -- It wouldn't form into cylinders properly.
* Got .030" PVC plastic -- characteristics seem ideal.
* Nickel manganate: higher positrode conductivity for better performance... or is it a better chemistry? - Nickel [per]manganate positrodes instead of nickel [oxy]hydroxide
* Making NiMn2O4 -- (NiMn2O4, Positive Electrode Mix, for sale, 20¢/gram either one).
* First working cell with 1/4" square cylinder electrodes, nickel manganate (+) and manganese (-) charges to about 2.3 volts.
* Ordered laser diodes, to have CNC machine burn the perforations in the plastic, ideally sized and spaced, automatically. (Too simple!)

TE News #48  -  February 1st 2012

Month In Brief (Summaries)

Electric Hubcap System - No report (still no circuit boards for the motor controller!)

Magnetic Impulse Torque Converter Project

* Version 2 tests
* Modified operating principle: magnetic impulse + mechanical hammer generates short pulses of high torque
* Version 3 construction

Electric Weel Motor - no report
Sprint Car Conversion Project - no report (see Torque Converter project)

LED Lighting Project

* 1100 lumen cold white heatsink drill template; CNC machine setup/mods/two drills idea
* No word from Energy Star (E-mailing now)

DSSC Solar Cell Project - Potential Revival
* Found iodine electrolyte to enable DSSC cells.
* Applied as a 'pebbly' skin on cover glass, my nanocrystalline titanium dioxide borosilicate glass mix appears to offer ~30-45% daily energy performance gain over smooth, flat glass, for any solar cells!
* Good gains on cloudy days!
* Commercial panel proves unsuitable for experiments. (Back to DSSC)

NiMH Battery Project - No report

Turquoise Battery Project
* Pourbaix Diagrams: better electrochemical info
Ni-Mn battery experiments
* Salty cell pH 12.3 with calcium hydroxide
* Alkaline Ni-Mn takes KOH pH from 14 to 13 via permanganate ion.
* Pourbaix diagrams show that pH 12-13 has better chemistries than either 7 or 14 for ALL the active elements under consideration. (Including it apparently eliminates zincate ion, making zinc into a long life electrode.)
* Mn(OH)2 with stibnite charges to Mn metal in pH 13 alkaline cell - high self discharge, but it may be due to poor mix with coarse stibnite powder.
* New battery cell constructions to make better cells easier.
* Making new cell with new construction & better mixed stibnite (but I'm still not confident it's really well mixed).

TE News #47  -  January 2nd 2012

Four Years of Electric Transportation & Energy Projects

Month In Brief

Electric Hubcap System
* in the news: A new type of turbine engine, by Robert Mueller at Michigan State U.
* in the news: Replica of first functional hybrid car, from 1900

Magnetic Impulse Torque Converter Project
* Construction of converter, 10" diameter with springy arms - worked well at low RPMs only.
* Plan for next version
* Initial tests: the potential is there... how much copper and how many magnets will it take?
* Theory of Operation

Electric Weel Motor - no report
Sprint Car Conversion Project - no report (see Torque Converter project)

Prospective Electric Outboard Motor from Scratch Project

* Chain drive electric outboard concepts
* Collecting parts

LED Lighting Project
* Wall mounted fixtures: easy as hanging a picture!

NiMH Battery Project
* Second Hand Tip: Vaseline on contacts prevents corrosion, improves contact.
* First Super Battery Stick made

Turquoise Battery Project
* Of interest: Nickel-Zinc/alkaline 1.6 volt batteries are available (PowerGenix.com) but only AA size.
* Zinc electrodes
* New electrode compactors
* Stibnite for manganese negatrodes

TE News #46  -  December 1st 2011

Month In Brief (Summaries)
* I'm to speak at Discover Tectoria conference Dec 8th, about Electric Hubcap motor system
* In passing: Nuclear Industry Melting Down; Buying Police Loyalty; Yet Another GM Dirty Trick

Electric Hubcap System
* Motor repairs (working again) & improvements to rotor compartment
* Polyurethane spray paint "crust" to keep ilmenite coil coatings from flaking off.
* Motor controller: V2 boards, CRM = direct torque control, great current control during regen... but how??
* Cutting shaft keyway slots with a lathe - lathe as milling machine?

Electric Weel Motor - no report (I did coat the coils with ilmenite. Very flaky, unfortunately.)

Mechanical Torque Converter Project
* New design: Magnetic Impulse torque converter
   - simple, robust, no wear, no internal moving parts!
* Combo magnetic/mechanical design offers higher torque

Sprint Car Conversion Project - no report
* Working on components - see Electric Hubcap System, torque converter and NiMH battery projects

New Electric Hubcap Outboard Project?
* An outboard from scratch might be just as easy as a conversion - and better?
* Production kit version?

LED Lighting Project
* Bright, cold white emitter fixtures: 1100 lumen/15W
* Electric bills continue lower than expected into winter (yay!)
* Energy Star partnership agreement form file format problems

NiMH Battery Project
* Ultimate Battery Stick? - 4" PVC pipe holds 7 sets of D cells... a 4" x 25", 12V, 70 amp-hour battery
* Car(s): Musings about using combos of NiMH and lead-acid

Turquoise Battery Project
* Zinc powder?
* Zinc powder from zinc oxide
* Best quality zinc electrodes!

TE News #45  -  November 5th 2011 (Posted Nov 12th)

Battery Technology Breakthrough!
'Grafpoxy' coated metal grills enable new salt electrolyte battery chemistries.

Month In Brief
(Summaries - and - gosh, editorial comment)
* Governments, Oil Companies, to ban electric cars?
* 7 Billion for Halloween & the coming Population Drop

Electric Hubcap System
* Motor contoller finally fixed, tested - works great.
* Motor over-revs at 42 volts and fails violently - analysis of failure, weak points.

Electric Weel Motor - no report

Mechanical Torque Converter Project
* Gear Reduction in Constantinesco's car - it doubtless had gear reduction at the rear axle to lighten the job of the mechanical torque converter.
* A better "centifugal clutch" mechanism
* Sprint is hard to move by hand at 4:1 (chain/sprockets) reduction - converter still has a big job

Sprint Car Conversion Project
* Drivetrain pieces come together day by day
* Fit into car and moved car by hand by turning torque converter drum
* Had main box rewelded, painted it all up with ersatz 'powder coating' (see TENews #42)

NiMH Battery Project
* Simple constant voltage charger for 12 V Battery Sticks: 15.0 volt power adapter + 2 diodes drop = 13.8 volts. Small resistor prevents overloading power adapter.
* Got 5A chargers for 3.99 $

LED Lighting Project
* LED Lighting: Good for your Eyes?
* BC Hydro subsidies for LED lighting?!?
* "Standard" LED Globe Light Fixtures For Sale (No wiring necessary. See: http://www.TurquoiseEnergy.com/TEcatalog/ => LED Lighting Products.)
* Also have a limited selection of 12 volt/car LED bulbs for local consumption.
* Simple 12VDC Lighting "Grid Tie" part -- 12VDC power adapter for AC side power supply.

Turquoise Battery Project
* Vanadium-Zinc cell
* Low conductivity: Aha, the culprits!
* Idea: epoxy-graphite coated copper grill current collector & terminal (turf graphite sheets and carbon rods!)
* Zinc electrodes in salt solution may be much better than in acid or alkali
* A working battery cell made! - no deterioration with cycling seen
* Grafpoxy grills work! Breakthrough unlocks the door to new salty battery chemistries!
* Carbon nanotubes with methylbenzene (toluene) solvent?
* Remaining issues for practical battery cell products

TE News #44  -  October 1st 2011 (Posted Oct 5th)

New Product: Handy Battery Sticks, Quintos Battery Sticks
* nickel-metal hydride dry cells in plastic tubes: 6 or 12V, 10 AH, 30+ Amps, 1000+ recharges, lightweight (See NiMH Battery Project article).

Month In Brief (Summaries)
- The Projects
- Washing Machines: Another example of vested interests blocking environmentally valuable progress
- Solar Photovoltaic Panels Versus Site C Dam: cheaper, more flexible, less land use?
- A better idea for wind power?: windplants strung between mountains on 'cable car' cables.

Electric Hubcap System
 * More reliable connections to bus wires in motor controller?

Electric Weel Motor

 * Doubled the skins on the plywood stator rings - waited for the epoxy to set on both sides of one ring...  I used hardener (honest!) but after a week, still gooey! Added another layer of PP epoxy on each side - finally it all hardened.

Mechanical Torque Converter Project
 * Some converter construction work done (drum bought, slotted, other parts found).

Sprint Car Conversion Project
 * Trouble at the pass - back to original plan! no, ditch 135 pound transmission! no, keep it!
 * Fresh Start (long story short): the differential by itself from the transmission is lossless - perfect!
 * ...driven with 3 to 1 reduction motorcycle chain drive (sprocket gears found and fitted)...
 * ...and mechanical torque converter on motor, which now has a 3x easier job than direct-to-wheel converter.
 * Fitting and installing drivetrain component housings & mountings.
 * Converting gas pedal to electron pedal
 * Front brake disk repair... and a simple way to measure the torque needed to move the car.
 * A thought: it's suddenly morfed from a "typical" car conversion project into a highly efficient "cutting edge" one!

NiMH Battery Project
 * Batteries for "mobility scooters" - or - "Electric Transport 101 Practical Lab".
 * Short "quintos' battery stick sets to fit in lead-acid battery boxes, spaces.

LED Lighting Project

 * LED automotive lighting: off the shelf 12 volt lighting for RV, boat, solar home and other 12V DC systems.
 * Plastic diffusers ordered - plastic food containers as diffusers.

Turquoise Battery Project
 * Tried a couple of electrolytes
 * tried zinc negative (zinc sheet from a dry cell, zinc oxide powder).
 * Eliminating dishsoap from negatrode reduces self discharge?
 * Still poor conductivity

TE News #43  -  September 2nd 2011

Month In Brief (Summaries)
 - Less energy; holidays reduce August working days.
 - No time, no work, no reports on Turquoise Battery, Electric Weel projects.
 - New projects: Sprint EV conversion, solar panel for LED lighting backup power.
 - This month's general diatribe: Government Against the People.

Electric Hubcap System
 * IR2133 Motor Controller V2 circuit board designed
 * Improved Electric Hubcap Motor Molds
 * Electric Hubcap Outboard Motor V2(?)
 * A thought: Solar panels on electric car roofs can minimize power grid impact of mass electric conversion

Sprint Car Conversion Project
 * Motors, controllers, but no mechanical torque converter yet... How about a regular electric conversion?
 * The "convertable": A small, light, cheap 4-door hatchback to convert to electric only drive
 * Gearing options

Mechanical Torque Converter Project - fresh plans

 * Easier construction to make one for Sprint car under hood
 * Less than 1/4 output torque needed than for Tercel wheel.
 * Improved idea for the conversion mechanism: narrow slots in drum give double strength 'reflection' bounce.

NiMH Battery Project
 * Who Killed the Electric Car? -- Hey guys: EV1 used NiMH batteries, not lead-acid!
 * Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Charging - It's Easy! An essay
 * Handy Battery Stick - improvements - light, inside-fit endcaps allow close stacking of sticks.

LED Lighting Project - Solar Collector - Good emitters with frosted diffusers make what's in the stores seem like toys.
 * Silverware Drainer Project... Huh?
 * LED car turn signal & brake lights
 * 3 Emitter Lamp with Hi-Off-Low switch: outshines 100 watt incandescent lamp with same lampshade.
 * Installed a solar panel/NiMH battery sticks LED lighting backup power system
 * Possibility of using my nanocrystalline titanium borosilicate glaze as cover glass for silicon - or any - solar panels.
 * Idea for solar power: A low voltage DC tie-in system to save on electric bills without a grid tie.
 * Best store-bought 120 VAC LED screw-in 'bulb' seen so far: 600 lumens at Costco for 20$.

TE News #42  -  August 2nd 2011

* Advanced "Current Ramp Modulation" Brushless Motor Controller made and tested
* "Battery Sticks": Stacking dry cells in pipes makes using a zillion of them for big (EV) batteries more practical.

Month In Brief (actually pretty brief this time - lots of pictures)

Electric Hubcap System
 * 'Final' version Hubcap motor: "the kit" parts photo, assembled, runs great
 * IR2133 Motor Controller Works Great (Yay!)
 * Advantages of "Current Ramp Modulation" ("CRM") over "Pulse Width Modulation" ("PWM")
 * Finally a great controller (tentatively $499) for a great motor (kit $499!)
 * Regenerative Braking control! (a simple add-on control circuit)
 * Zinc undercoat: spray it on, heat treat it in oven, then spray paint finish coat over it. Forget powder coating!

Nickel - Metal hydride Battery Project (focus: Battery Cases)
 * NiMH Battery Update: bought a pile of D cells, NiMH prices, sold a car battery
 * Stressed solder joints fatigue with road bumps & vibration.
 * New Case Design: Battery Sticks! load NiMH D cells into Plastic Tubes. Fast. No soldering.
 * Motorbike tests, with new controller... and battery sticks.
 * 6V (5 D cells), 10 AH, 1 foot sticks, and 12V (10 D cells), 10 AH, 2 foot sticks: 14-20$ - batteries not included.

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...)
Torque Converter Project

LED Lighting Project A little energy efficient home lighting, anyone?
 * The kitchen lights: 20 watts replaces 200.
 * LED PVC pipe & mushroom diffuser table lamp (Similar lamps from me: $95)
 * Bedroom: Installed ceiling LED globe or mushroom Lights: Simple - almost trivial!
 * My LED table lamp seems to outshine four Wallmart LED lightbulbs. (YES!)

DSSC Solar Cell Project
 * Overall & Latest Concepts overview... but no actual work.

Turquoise Battery Project (no report)

TE News #41  -  July 1st 2011

Month In Brief (summary)
  * Motor controllers: problems (no wonder the car doesn't move!) & solutions
  * AKOO Stuff: Hubcap & Weel motors - e-bike - torque converter design - LED house lighting - battery experiments
  * Wind power: costs hit parity with fossil fuel power costs in 2010
  * Off Topic Editorial Rant: loss of freedoms; US war crimes & Wikileaks; failure of our governing systems to evolve.

Electric Hubcap System
  * Motor Controllers... A3938 Motor Controller: more failures
  * Microcontroller based motor controller: the way to get the exact features you want!
  * MC33033 controller, e-motorbike: more tests, more failures.
  * Back to square 1: IR2130 triple MOSFET driver + 'standard' logic chips like I was using in 2008/9!
  * New IR2133 (with some devious connections!) gets it down to 2 chips, with optimum 'current ramp modulation' control.
  * Motor system thinness; Metal protection: "Cold Galvanizing Compound" spray; First flat magnet rotor.

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...)
  * Plywood stator base instead of composite mold to speed up protoypte
  * Welded the magnet rotor (finally)

Torque Converter Project
  * Spring-loaded MTC protoype - better configuration idea

LED Lighting Project A little energy efficient home lighting, anyone?
  * 10W, 1000 lumens LED... run at just 4 watts as a 3-AA cell plastic dome light... takes on 3W tungsten, 15W CF and 60W tungsten.
  * 4 W hallway globe light - runs on spare 9 V power adapter plugged into light fixture. (250 lumens? Far brighter than previous 7 W CF.)
  * .9 W "off the shelf" car inside light... lets me read street names on maps after dark.

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Electrode conductivity is now good, but finished cell conductivity is still low.
  * trying other electrolytes

TE News #40  -  June 2nd 2011

Spotlight: A new high energy, economical battery chemistry: 2.1 volt V-Ni salty cell.

Month In Brief (summary)
  * Most inventors are "unemployed"? Well, duh!
  * Raising the bar - Mechanical torque converter - battery design - Hubcap motor production

Electric Hubcap System

  * A3938 V2 Motor Controller
  * Motor Production Setup

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...) (No activity or report.)

Planetary Gears Project
  * Disappointing test in April leads to renewed thoughts about dropping planetary gears, making a torque converter work.

Torque Converter Project
  * oscillating planetary gear torque converter: rotary version of Constantinesco's original design - an idea from chat list "half bakery.com".
  * My version of the planetary gear version
  * Types of MTCs
  * New idea! A spring-loaded MTC - designs thereof...

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Salty electrolyte battery research: stalled since the 1880s!
  * But not high budget lithium research!
  * Cell with Nickel (+1 v), Vanadium (-1 v) Negatrode ? ... didn't work...
  * simply reversed the leeds: +Vanadium, -Nickel cell ...WORKS!, 2.1 volts, should have 200+ WH/Kg!
  * Vanadium Pentoxide+: ~ +1v, double electrons: higher energy than nickel hydroxide or manganese dioxide as a positrode - works in salt electrolyte only.
  * (Potassium permanganate "+" may be even better than vanadium pentoxide: more electrons, same voltage.)
  * Nickel-: ~ -1 volt in salt (!)
  * Carbon fiber to improve conductivity.
  * "Diesel Kleen" Solvent/Hexadecane": fabulous carbon/graphite conductivity booster! - electrode surface turns from "sandstone" to "silver".
  * Epoxy with graphite powder to improve conductivity between electrode and terminal post.

TE News #39  -  May 2nd 2011

Month In Brief (summary)
  * Hybridizing cars: Two Electric Hubcap motors, with planetary gear sets? (having nylon planet gears?)
  * Turquoise Battery Project: First Successful rechargeable salt electrolyte battery. Mn-Ni, 1.5 V.
  * Successful end to the NiMH dry cell car batteries as a research project. (But I'll be getting lots of them for EV use!)
  * Much paperwork/writing
  * Independent franchises business model?

Electric Hubcap System

  * Motor Configuration
  * Shortest Motor
  * Smaller Diameter, Too - new body parts molds
  * Hall Sensor Circuit Board
  * A3938 V2 Motor Controller Circuit Board
  * Smaller 'production version' controller chassies: fewer components and smaller controller plate allows smaller wiring box.

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...)
  * More metal parts have been cut, a better design emerges based on improved Hubcap motor design. But other projects take precedence.

Planetary Gears Project
  * No mechanical torque converter yet!
  * Instead: hybridize cars with Hubcap motors and planetary gears.
  * Photos of gears and car installation.
  * Lubrication: Oil Drip...
  * ...or Nylon Planet Gears! Nylon gears make non-oil-filled transmissions practical.
  * Can't find nylon gears... maybe just great gobs of grease and the metal gears?

Torque Converter Project

  * New design idea: a variable ratio "planetary gear"?

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Osmium - conductivity
  * "Low" oxygen overvoltage may be the key cause of high self discharge!
  * Refrigerator test, freezer test: self discharge is much lower at freezing temperature.
  * In salt battery, nickel hydroxide forms naturally from nickel metal -- no need to make it.
  * Rare earth hydroxides (La(OH)3) are used to increase oxygen overvoltage. (Hence: my original monel-lanthanum hydroxide mix is probably great stuff! But other rare earths are probably better. -- Samarium or Neodymium?)
  * Designs for next cell (complete design less sealed case).
  * Cell made: self discharge still high.
  * Reversed the polarity: IT WORKS! 1.5 V rechargeable cell holds charge.

TE News #38  -  April 2nd 2011

Feature: Electric Hubcap Motor Making Kits: $499.99 (no where near $500) - Taking orders now.

Month In Brief
  * Plus opinion... Natural resources: public property?
  * Plus news item... The End of nuclear power? A study says that in an ongoing trend, the cost per KWH of electricity from solar panels has dropped below that for nuclear plants. (It crossed over in 2010 for new construction... and that's before Japan!)

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
  * PP-Epoxy Stator Ring Mold - for stator production
  * PP-Epoxy Stator/'End Bell' Rings: Same stator for any configuration of motor.
  * Bearing holders, 1" rod axles
  * INSOLUBLE Sodium Silicate coil coating
  * "Regular Motor" configuration motor made, CNC setups...
  * Ilmenite seems to work even better than ceramic rutile - even lower motor currents!
  * Flat steel rotor disks - cut by abrasive waterjet (it's much cheaper than I expected). Motor only 4" long.

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...)
  * Flat plate rotor cut by abrasive waterjet
  * more pieces to be cut, taper lock bushing

Torque Converter Project
  Sigh, no time!
  * Moving escapement pivots from inside the drum to outside: 6" torque radius instead of 5".

NiMH Dry Cell Car Battery Project - Get the lead out - of your car! Reduce vehicle weight! Reduce Fuel Consumption! Green batteries! from $300. (e-mail me!)
  * AA cells arrive, assembled new car battery - sure enough, 9 pounds instead of 12

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Tests: runs for days with 61 ohm load, but at pathetic ever dropping voltages - mostly under 1 volt.
  * Repeated tests show similar performance: it's rechargeable.
  * Improved case: thicker walls, better(?) '+' terminal connections.

TE News #37  -  March 1st 2011

Feature: The Electric Weel Motor: THE way to make future cars! - and to do electric conversions today.

Month In Brief

New Electronics Lab
  * Overcrowded combined shop was getting hard to work in, for either motors or electronics.
  * Room came vacant, so... shops were separated and reorganized.

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
  * Paramagnetic nanocrystalline coil coating: Success! - lowers no-load motor currents.
  * Toroidal iron powder cores have lower losses than solid cylinder finishing nail strip laminate cores. (Surprise, surprise!)
  * Perfect hub for PP-epoxy stators: regular trailer wheel hub! PP-epoxy stator is then a flat ring that bolts to the hub. (Too simple! 4 pounds heavier though.)
  * EH Motor kits are coming soon!

Electric Weel Motor Project (Electric Wheel Motor... Rim Motor...)
  * Thinking Outside the box: a huge diameter axial flux 'pancake' motor with all its force elements out by the rim - an "electromagnetic wheel rim" motor - would have the ideal characteristics of immense torque and low RPM needed for direct car wheel drive.
  * Same force components as used to make 3 EH motors, placed around one 26" rim, would provide 9 times the torque with only 3 times the power (15 KW), and at 1/3 the RPM - at car wheel speeds.
  * a superior ultra efficient way to make future electric cars - and to do electric conversions today.
  * Spoked rotor and stator provide the size without excess weight.
  * Needs heavy axle, bearings, hub - only 6" long but they weigh 15 pounds.
  * Toyota 4runner obtained for conversion to "Electric Weel" motor EV.
  * "ElectricWheel.com" is taken - "ElectricWeel.com" registered. Spelling will help differentiate product.

Torque Converter Project
  * Test shows wheel linkage problem solved.
  * But low motor speeds and performance show that controller, motor and converter problems aren't solved.
  * Design flaw: too many teeth! - 5 teeth in ring gear (and 20 'missing') instead of 25 will give motor time to accelerate between pulses - even with low motor power.
  * Motor rotor may want more weight to give torque pulses more punch.
  * Tooth and escapement profiles: quieter, smoother torque pulses.

NiMH Dry Cell Car Battery Project - Get the lead out - of your car! Reduce vehicle weight! Reduce Fuel Consumption! Green batteries! from $320. (e-mail me!)
  * First D cell battery, Feb 3rd: Starts car without hesitation - even at -6ºC.
  * Sure enough, it's been done... or tried... before. NiCd, too.
  * NiMH Battery Tests: NiMH AA cells do actually have 100 watt-hours per kilogram energy density: best battery for electric transport. ...except for all that soldering! (Car battery will be under 9 pounds!)
  * PbPb, NiMH, LiIon cost comparison (from Ovonics).

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Mn-Fe: Lower voltage (~1.6) than MnMn -- but lower self discharge.
  * Gradual small improvements.
  * Better case?: 4" ABS (or 6") - not the pipe, just the flat end cap! 4.5" inner diameter gives 16 square inch electrode surfaces, 1/2 liter volume.

TE News #36  -  February 3rd 2011

Feature: Ni-MH dry cell car battery packs are ideal car starter batteries: green, lightweight, very long life, economical!

Month In Brief (summary)

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
  * Making iron-powder coils (much easier!) -- with nanocrystalline ceramic rutile skins.
  * EH Motor Coils: for sale - $10 each (triple magnet sensors, mounted, wired - $30 ea, 1" I.D. Bearings & Bearing hub - $45 ea, PP-Epoxy Stator - um...)
  * Next Motor, with the PP-epoxy stator and new IP coils.
  * 'Upside down' stator? - PP-epoxy plate between coils and magnet rotor offers superior protection. (or a ring covering all the coils.)
  * Super Electric Hubcaps: Super Torque and Low RPM for direct wheel drives.
    - 10 KW, 18", 4x torque, 1000 RPM
(use two under hood - connect to front wheels by CV drive shafts)
    - 15 KW, 26", 9x torque, 700 RPM
(use one - speed limited to ~80 Km/Hr)

Torque Converter Project (no test yet. It should work. Needed: a nice day, time, and a stronger back or lighter batteries! NiMH batteries are on order.)

NiMH Car Battery Project
- Get the lead out - of your car! Reduce vehicle weight! Reduce Fuel Consumption! Green batteries!
  * Found: dropping Ni-MH dry cell battery prices - under 450 $/KWH.
  * Experiments with Ni-MH AAAs & AAs showed very high currents are attainable.
  * Very long life (as proven by NiMH hybrid batteries) NiMH battery packs for starting cars: practical and now economical.
  * Replaces toxic lead-acid with 'green' NiMH; takes 15-25 pounds off vehicle weight.
  * improves mileage.
  * "4/3-AF" size is chosen for test battery pack.
  * Ni-MH car test battery cost: 152 $ (plus shipping, tax, ... $190.)
  * Pack is a bit small: 60 cells (23 AH,9C) starts car, but 80 (31 AH,7C, $250) would have been better.
  * Starts car and charges properly - ideally - with any car alternator system.
  * Recommended minimum amp-hours/amps rating: AH * 7 (7C) ≥ Starter Amps
  * Works Great! Are lead-acid car starter batteries now obsolete?
  * For Sale: 'D' cells are on order; ready made NiMH dry cell car batteries $320 (~210 amps, small car size) $420 (280 amps, medium car). Be in on the first batch - reserve yours now! 10% discount for prepayment.
  * Next item: battery tab spot welder for CNC machine production.
  * Footnote: NiMH dry cells for EVs idea; NiMH dry cells to make hybrids into plug-in hybrids idea.

Turquoise Battery Project

  * Conductive carbon sheet/layer mixes.
  * Next Test Battery is assembled: high resistances -- but they didn't rise over time.
  * Mn negatrode: bubbles, high self discharge.
  * Graphite surface cleaning/prep.
  * Next one: better currents; lowest internal resistance yet but still too high.

Month In Brief (monthly summary)
3 Years in Review (a look back at developments: wave power, EH motor and car drive, batteries, Department of Progress, other projects)

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
TE News #35  -  January 3rd 2011
  * Metal Stator: had unexpected eddy current losses
  * New Plastic Stator: molded composite of strong, lightweight polypropylene mat & epoxy resin - non-conductive so no losses.
  * Toroidal Iron Powder Coil Cores: Commercially made "T200-26B" core is EH's exact size! Will greatly simplify making coils, boost efficiency and performance.
  * Testing motors to determine specs.
  * Calculations with above improvements indicate EH motors will attain 95% efficiency.
  * Motor making workshop price reduced with easier to make motors: $650 (Includes parts/materials for motor, $300).
  * MC33033 motor controller deficiencies uncovered.
  * Making new A3938 motor controller (some problems/adjustments remain, but controller works).
  * A3938's current limiting drive works differently to typical PWM - and more like a gas pedal.

Torque Converter Project
  * More mechanical torque converter theory.
  * 5-Star Escapement Torque Converter: best design yet.
  * Testing Problems: Motor controller deficiencies and sloppy mechanical coupling to car wheel have been hobbling torque converter tests.
  * simple coupling change for next tests.

Turquoise Battery Project
  * 9V battery disassembly shows simple yet exacting construction techniques
  * Ni-MH battery price reductions: for $200 I may replace my car battery with 30 "D" cells. (If you want some Ni-MH batteries too, a bigger order would get us better quantity discounts.)
  * Latest Turquoise battery design overview (details here)

TE News #34  -  December 1st 2010

November in Brief (summary)
   * A month of further development and refinement of the EH motor

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
  * Electric Hubcap Motors get Better and Better!
  * EH Motor Testing: proving the efficiency and power; the motor with adjustable performance specs!
  * Magnet Rotors: Epoxy-polypropylene composite skin strengthens magnet bond to rotor
  * Welding bearing race hubs: preheating parts with torch improves hub-to-rotor welds
  * Jigs, CNC drilling improve motors & speed making them
  * Motor controller: Designing for serviceability is paying off!
  * New Motor Controller printed circuit board designed - smaller PCB uses improved A3938 chip.
  * First motor workshop student completes his motor!
  * Small business opportunity? for Victoria BC residents: make & sell Electric Hubcap motor coils, magnet rotors (sales opportunities per market demands).
  * Making & marketing motor components online to simplify making more marvelous motors
  * Lower price parts sources found: estimated parts cost to make an EH motor down from almost $400 to under $300. (That's still buying parts at retail prices.)
  * Lower cost for workshops: $700 or less.

Better Blades for Windplants (just some cool ideas... not a project)
  * Residents object to nearby windplant noise.
  * Here are ideas for quieter, also durable and reproducible, windplant blades.

Torque Converter Project
  * Plan for modifying existing escapement converter -- 5-at-once torque hits instead of one at a time should substantially boost performance.

Pulsejet Steel Plate Cutter Project
  * One-way air intake made, main parts cut out, welded... a couple of parts left to make.

Electric Outboard Motor Project
  * Steeper Pitch Propeller installed.
  * On the water: Runs great, quiet!
  * Movie Clips are on YouTube (Search there for "Electric Hubcap Outboard" or "Turquoise Energy".)
  * not 'speedboat' as prop is 'stuck in first gear' with motor using only 1/4 power at its max RPM.
  * but it should move a considerably larger boat just about as fast as the small one, drawing more on its available power.

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Latest carbon electrode backing experiment: hexadecane & graphite.
  * Some Behind the Scenes Battery News... and of course an accompanying editorial.
     - new developments in lithium and nickel-iron
     - what the slippery big oil people try to get us to believe, and to not realize, about bateries.

TE News #33  -  November 2nd 2010

October in Brief (summary)
  * Feature: The Electric Hubcap Outboard Motor: a practical, working unit has been made to demonstrate that the "EH" motor is not only the only 5+ HP motor that can easily be made without a motor factory, but that it's as good as the best or better.

Electric Hubcap System & Motor Building Workshops
  * Welding hubs to rotors: there's special welding rods for welding cast steel parts... or use stainless steel rods
  * First student is progressing well on motor
  * Hall effect magnet sensors: a mounting system
  * First CNC hole drilling of a stator: to automate the job, improve precision
  * Wider flux gap (.57") greatly improves motor performance
  * Second motor controller made, for testing motors in the shop (& for outboard) - has improvements

Sodium Sulfate Longevity Additive for Lead-Acid Batteries: (a quick correction supplement - no further report)
  * A bad test leed on the multimeter used to determine load currents (recently discovered and replaced) gave skewed readings, which results were propagated throughout the tests. New DC current clamp corrects figures.
  * The "5 amp" (car headlights) load actually draws 6 amps at 12.0 volts; the "10 amp" load is actually 12 amps; the "25 amp" load is actually 35 amps; all headlights on reads 51 amps instead of 40.
  * This means that all the batteries tested throughout the project actually performed somewhat better and had somewhat more amp-hours than indicated in the newsletter reports.

Torque Converter Project
  * a 3rd place that mass might count... on the motor rotor

Wave Power Project - solar green energy systems
  * No wind, no waves, not ready: no tests
  * Direct Solar power installations - Sun, acres of Mirrors, and Steam Turbines
  * Backyard solar power?: mirrors and Stirling engines, or DSSC solar panels (earning over 360 $/month with net metering).

Pulsejet Steel Plate Cutter Project
  * Parts acquisition
  * The air intake: ball bearing check valve
  * shape: inverse conical?

Electric Outboard Motor Project
  * Purposes: demonstrate another application of EH motor, demonstrate its superiority
  * Outboard Disassembly - frustrating process
  * Motor installation
  * New Motor Controller
  * Initial testing - gear systems burn energy (duh!)
  * Magnet glue failure; re-done 'epoxy encapsulated' magnet rotor virtually certain to hold
  * Water pail test: runs great, but light load coupling owing to ~4:1 propeller speed reduction
  * Bought steeper pitch propeller (more push at a given RPM)

Turquoise Battery Project
   * A couple of carbon/graphite experiments

TE News #32  -  October 3rd 2010

September in Brief

Electric Hubcap Motors, Motor Building Workshops - Motor & Controller Availability
  * Motors: workshop/product version finalizations: axle, plates/rotors, hubs (turning and welding), seals...
  * Customers for ready made EH motors & controllers may help fund workshops.

Torque Converter Project
  * Better Layouts
  * Single "full circle" escapement to maximize forces?
  * Heavier drum makes little difference?
  * Too many ideas, too little time, delay next step

Wave Power Project
  * My float assembly design (and perhaps the mechanical transmission) still has advantages over others
  * Yet another rant about dysfunctional government
  * Remake of transmission with one-way ratchet, lawn mower motor as generator
  * Low Voltages force change from V-belt (1:5) to starter & flywheel gears (1:20 - better but still low V)

Pulsejet Steel Plate Cutter Project
  * Theory - Designs
  * On hold for now (making motors with brake rotors for now - no steel cutting needed).

Electric Outboard Motor Project?
  * The prototype motor, about 2 HP if run at 24 volts - comparison with 2 HP induction motor outboard?
  * Splined axle assembly?
  * Searching for an outboard leg, 5-10 HP

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Using the Spot Welder
  * Energy Densities Visual: Mn-Mn batteries lost in the vastness of an old electric drill Ni-Cd battery pack
  * Mn-Mn: ultimate dirt cheap, long life, high energy density dry cell battery?
  * Electrode Briquette Binder Technique - how a popular technique works. (Duh!)
  * Charging to permanganate, valence 7
  * Carbon/Graphite and Positrode Connections - making solid, low resistance carbon sheets
  * Permanganate
  * Antimony catalyst
  * Borohydride Chelating Agent

TE News #31
  -  September 1st 2010

August in Brief
  * Workable design for Mechanical Torque Converter, and working electrochemistry for economical high energy Ni-Mn batteries - and even "dirt cheap" high energy Mn-Mn batteries: Now it's down to implementation details... though a few of them are still pretty challenging.
  * With the torque converter "in sight", I think it's time to start pushing ahead with adoption ideas - like getting motor controllers made, custom cut steel and aluminum parts, and motor making workshops.
  * Pulsejet steel cutter - potential project - or tool? Designed to be jet engines with no moving parts, pressure pulsed flame might make a great steel cutter. Use free-form for prototyping, or on CNC machine for automated cutting. (for the custom cut parts mentioned above.)

Electric Hubcap Motor Making Workshop
  * Finally Going Ahead. Self-paced, flexible hours per participant needs. Please Call!
  * Cost $1000 includes motor parts, supplies (further details on web site).
  * Accommodation here for out of town workshop participant, $150 per week.
  * Explore commercial possibilities for making motors, motor controllers, parts for them, install systems on vehicles, etc. (There have already been a couple of offers to buy finished units.)

Torque Converter Project: a Working Torque Machine
  * The mechanical torque converter is in fact a new type of machine to add to the "classical" machines:
     Lever, Wheel and axle, Pulley, Inclined_plane, Wedge, Screw,
     Hydraulic pistons, Torque converter.
  * Quick experiment & calculations indicates oscillating masses torque machine really ought to be feasible.
  * Weighted escapements experiment (136 grams versus 36) shows...
  * It works! "Clock Escapement" type torque machine provides motive force.
  * Ideal shape of converter drum: a "bowl shaped" convex bottom? - EH unit would pivot more smoothly when car wheel hits bumps.
  * Gears... all these problems and considerations, bypassed by the torque converter!

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Nickel plating dissolves off collector screen! - Inquiry reveals "brighteners" are added to the plating, so it actually is not pure nickel!
  * Sodium Silicate and Calcium electrode binder?
  * Graphite Collector Plates: Cheaper, more available than nickel, simpler than nickel plating.
  * Commercial lightweight "expanded graphite" sheets seem to work without corroding!
  * Hard electrode shells with "caramelized" egg white?
  * Mn-Mn: DIRT CHEAP 'everlasting' high energy 1.8 volt batteries.
  * Expanded graphite sheets, carbon (graphite) fiber & mat, carbon powder: the keys to a great, very conductive positrode!
  * Alkaline pH turns neutral, Ni-Mn voltage rises: ~~2.25 V - 15% more energy.
  * Bolt-Box Electrode Compactor Mark II - "how to" instructions.
  * Design ideas for "production" batteries.

TE News #30  -  August 3rd 2010

July in Brief (summary)
  * Torque Converter - "type 5: clock escapement"
  * Battery tab spot welder
  * Working Ni-Mn chemistry!
       Battery chemie promises highest energy densities, "green", indefinite life, maintenance free, low cost.

Chevy Volt: I'm suspicious
* Delays, luxury car price, no TV ads... and specs show abysmal efficiency: HALF the miles/KWH of the EV-1.
  * "Who Killed the Electric Car" is to be repeated with MiEV.
  * It's all part of a century old pattern.
  * Epilogue: A "typical example" of electric car suppression?

Mechanical or Magnetic Torque Converter Project
  * "Crown" of twisted sprockets
  * Escapement "anchors"
  * Principle seems to work
  * Punch for making improved twisted sprockets; then a new one for bigger ones.

Simple Capacitive Discharge/Resistance Spot Welder Project
  * Battery electrodes use spot welding for secure connections
  * Electrodes: heavy Cu wires sanded to cone-shaped ends
  * Trial 1: 10,000uF charged to 15 volts makes feeble welds on thin battery jumpers
  * Trial 2: 112,800uF @ 15 volts makes a bigger spark
  * With short, heavy leed wires it zaps holes, pits
  * With practice & technique, welds thin battery tabs to battery.
  * Shortest project yet, under 4 hours!
  * Improved Model July 22nd

Turquoise Battery Project
  * Short Summary
  * New Nickel-Manganese Battery Chemistry Works! - for the first time ever, 2 volt alkaline cells!
  * Higher EV/PHEV battery energy densities are now possible, eg 140 WH/Kg and up!
  * Made: Large 3" x 6" flat plate Ni-Mn Battery
  * Depressing press news: bolt-down electrode compactor is stronger than 12 ton hydraulic press
  * Too much pressure; lots of bubbling: changed from sealed dry cells to flooded, vented cells
  * It's alkaline, even with salt electrolyte. pH read 12-13.
  * Copper structural materials don't work in the positrodes - rapidly corrode away. Trying nickel-brass plates.
  * Copper negatrodes seem great!
  * VERY gradually starting to hold charge - the voltages are going up and lasting longer as the weeks pass.
  * Stacking electrodes for higher voltage cells: ...dip in paint or wax or something to seal edges?
  * New, more powerful electrode compactor; bigger electrodes?
  * Side thought: why are there no high energy density nickel-iron batteries, eg, 70-80 WH/Kg?
  * Exciting new Ni-Fe research - from India - is also applicable to Ni-Mn. (next two items)
  * Better electrode binder?
  * Catalytic H2 + O2 => H2O gas recombiner reduces gas pressures: allows maintenance-free sealed cells after all!

TE News #29  -  July 1st 2010  *** Happy Canada Day! ***

  June in Brief
    * This month: EH Motor, Torque converter, solar cells, Ni-Mn batteries
    * Democracy for Canada: On-line referendums

  Editorial/Review: Documentary Movie The Corporation - the pathological pursuit of profit and power
    * The dark side of society, the economy and politics today.
    * ...and even with all its fine insights, it doesn't touch on what goes on to deliberately keep us using as much oil as possible!
    * Attainder looks more and more appealing.

  Electric Hubcaptm ("EH") Car Drive System Project
    * 3rd party extols the virtues of axial PM (eg, EH) motor format
    * Motor fixed. Motor & controller working fine.
    * Supermagnets: protect the neodymium... even from dry air!
    * Coffee can jig for getting metal hub past magnets to assemble rotor
    * "Bare-bones" EH motor weight: 37 pounds (17 Kg)

  Mechanical or Magnetic Torque Converter Project
    * The new magnetic radial design.
    * Magnets edge-on are much better than face-to-face!
    * Swiveling magnets permit one-way force.
    * 2" magnet edges (over 30 pounds(?)) are much better than 1" (15 pounds)
    * Arms meet & magnets stick - arm swing limit stops needed... made.
    * Tests reveal all the desired properties except one... the force is much too light.
    * Installing enough supermagnets to provide enough torque would seem to be impractical.
    * Clock escapements again: this idea, which I keep harking back to, is probably what'll work best, but making one that'll take and transfer the forces without busting...
    * Next design figured out: Lots of small nylon escapement 'anchors' (however many are required!) each with small force should add up to large force.
    * Recap: the several designs since this project commenced.

  Nanocrystalline Solar Cell Project
    * Metal grid rear electrode: no more loss of light than 'transparent' tin oxide?
    * Glaze mix 9 is probably fortuitously close to an 'ideal' clear nanocrystalline borosilicate glaze mix.
    * Tartrazine (common yellow food dye) seems like a great dye to use.

  Turquoise Battery Project
    * MnO2 discharge with H2O2(?)
    * Sealed Ni-Mn test battery
    * Measured very low electrode conductivities by voltmeter (large voltage gradients through electrode thickness during charge): this, not chemistry, explains many of the problems I've been having all along.
    * Seemingly electrode compaction is insufficient for good particle contact; even more is required.
    * 12 ton hydraulic press purchased for electrode compaction.

The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Longevity/Renewal Project
    * Sodium Sulfate battery treatment: Info, 'Kits' For Sale
* New(ish) batteries: Just add the salt. "Worn out" batteries: drain acid, do restoration process. "Mid-life" batteries: treatment at this point isn't recommended.
    * According to local battery pro, the best way to access batteries with glued-on lids: drill 1/4" holes in the 'solid' side of the lid, plug them with heat gun glue. ("Rubber stoppers always leak sooner or later.")

TE News #28  -  June 1st 2010

  May in Brief (summary)
  Editorial: The Disgrace of the Patent System: the Need to rethink it

  Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive System Project
    * 2 magnets fly off spinning rotor - indicates problems with nickel plated supermagnets
       - I suggest using epoxy coated magnets instead.
       - and screws as well as glue.
    * Phase quits (on motor controller?)... needs investigation... controller looks fine

  Mechanical or Magnetic Torque Converter Project
    * Promising new design with radial forces instead of axial should eliminate vibration.
    * First test: Back and forth rotary torque replaces axial vibration; force seems too light.
    * Thought up a new positive method to ensure all torque goes only one way.
    * bigger drum, closer magnet gaps, should tug car wheel harder each time... hopefully enough.
  Nanocrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project
    * The Ultimate Potential?: "supermagnet" strength motor coils for motors with incredible torque?
    * Several glaze mixes later, apparently the proper nanocrystalline glaze structure - but no magnetic results.
    * Great glaze structure inspires (gulp) yet another new energy project with seemingly fabulous potential - see next.

  Nanocrystalline Solar Cell Project
    * The nanocrystalline ceramic glaze mix could make a great rear electrode for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), with reflection and repolarization of the light potentially as much as doubling their solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency, eg, from 10% to 15 or 20%.
    * DSSC structure with porcelain/glaze backing
    * Materials experiments
    * The search for a non-prescription solar cell electrolyte

  Ocean Wave Power Project
    * Danish wave power project moving ahead: 1/5 scale production prototype - http://www.dexawave.com/
    * His vessel & float design now virtually identical to mine
    * My 2007 design drawings
    * Has BC lost out?

  Turquoise Battery Project (no report - had no time to look at it.)

The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Longevity/Renewal Project
    * Sodium Sulfate 'battery treatment kits' For Sale
Convenient packages with instructions and 6 paper cups.
    * Key to renewing old batteries: Dump out the crud, replace the acid with water and Na2SO4.
    * Low acid concentration - SG 1.1 or less the norm for renewed batteries?
    * "Sealed" batteries with glued-on lids: just drill 6 holes in the "solid" side, use 6 rubber stoppers.
    * (Fairly) comprehensive info is now on the web at:

TE News #27 - May 4th 2010

  April in Brief (summary)
    * Another month of gradual progress in all directions on each project:

  Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive System Project
    * Motor Controller Modification: Ditch the 7uF coil filter capacitors (works better without - coil spikes are no larger).
    * MC33033 obsolescence. New chip?: probably Allegro A3938.

  Mechanical or Magnetic Torque Converter Project
    * Vibration and poor thrust plague latest design.
    * Very promising new design worked out:
      - shifting and consequent vibrations are radial instead of axial, and should all cancel.
      - thrust is repeated 'tugs' at the wheel instead of 'hits'.
      - May be made as either mechanical or magnetic type. (guess which one would be quietest)
      - Still quite simple, no "stator" piece needed.

  Nanocrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project
    * Ceramic glaze compositions examined: the commercial mixes of metallic elements.
    * Fired some porcelain strips to apply the glaze to.
    * Batch of rough, dark glaze made, fired, annealed, fired hotter, annealed - no results.
    * Rough, dark glaze?: more clear "amorphous glassy substrate" needed (borosilicate glass), with less of the metals?
    * Tried "glaze mix 3" variant of previous - looks close to the desired overall form.

  Ocean Wave Power Project (no report)

  Turquoise Battery Project
    * Salvaged Ni & Cd electrodes from a dry cell work as a test/reference battery
    * KCl Salt electrolyte works: same chemistry, different voltages
    * My Ni(OH)2 'positrode' (~+1v, with MnO2 for higher oxygen overvoltage)... it works!
    * Mn 'negatrode' (~-1.3v): bubbles (hydrogen?)
    * Ni 'negatrode' (~-.4v): Surprise! it bubbles, even with such a low voltage. (hydrogen?)
    * Mixed Ni/Mn: less bubbles than either alone! Could have high voltage, high effective energy density.
    * To raise hydrogen overvoltage: transition metals, borohydride, and a secret weapon: egg white.

The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Longevity/Renewal Project
    * Sodium Sulfate For Sale
Convenient packages with instructions and 6 paper cups.
    * Key to renewing old batteries: Dump out the crud?

TE News #26 - April 2nd 2010

   March in Brief (summary)
    * Main Events
    * Looking Back
    * Scope Creep

  Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive System Project
Detailed Report
    * Electric Hubcap Drive system - whole new configuration and back again

  Mechanical Torque Converter Project Detailed Report
    * Ratchets and "rotary diodes" (tested), motor mounting (on car above wheel), pivot bearing & rod end
    * Problems found with that plan... back to finishing previous converter
    * Change to spring return?

  Micro Nanocrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
    * What's so good about them? ... Zero eddy current losses, Near zero hysteresis losses, Higher permitivity than actual metal, Lighter.
    * Size of crystal structures is "nano" rather than "micro"
    * Separate materials: nano-crystalline ceramics (and other composities) and nano-crystalline alloys, all magnetically very effective
    * Trying to source ready-made microcrystalline alloy cores or core strips: no luck, unanswered e-mails
    * Problem with my ceramics is probably methods rather than materials - solid cores too thick to cool quickly except near edges
    * So! slice up solid cores into thin strips with zip disk, and requench as thin strips, then reheat (low temp) to anneal them
    * Results?... Nope.
    * "Amorphous glassy substrate"... sounds more like pottery glaze than clay body. Will concentrate on glazing the thin strips, and the materials and methods of the glazing.

  Ocean Wave Power Project
    * Accidentally made great ratchet with lever arm & connecting bar for improved transmission of power from wave capture floats to generator.
    * Got a lawnmower motor to use as a non-cogging low voltage DC generator.
    * Now have all the major components... all that's needed is time to put it all together and test it.

  Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report
    * Having a very hard time finding pure nickel products for alkaline batteries - fruitless hours on the web searching. Pure lanthanum, dysprosium, manganese are cheaper and easier to buy! (What is wrong with this picture?)
    * Cases - planned final design assembled
    * Ready made nickel electrodes? - from old Ni-Cd cells! To do alkali cells, a way to test one new thing at a time!

  The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Renewal Project February report - *** Sodium Sulfate For Sale ***
    * Bought a big keg of Sodium Sulfate to treat battery(s) - must sell some of it: (Portions $5 up; I treat your battery - $20).

TE News #25 - March 3rd 2010

   February in Brief
      * Family needs and garage repairs divert energies and efforts.
      * Improved Electric Hubcap Motor making manual. ('Interim version' posted on website.)
         (...I looked at it and said 'Holy smoke, does that ever need some updating and improvements!')

   Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive System Project
Detailed Report
      * Heaters: Found a better heater core - 36V, four 200 watt elements.
      * Cheap Sheet Metal Break (bender) - just $39.99!
      * Electric Car Heater Making Plans: how-to, chassis/assembly.
      * Hmm... More ready-made 36 volt commercial units are now available

   Mechanical Torque Converter Project
Detailed Report
      * February Work - not much of it, I'm afraid - no time.
      * Ack! New idea for a magnetic converter... (but wouldn't it be "lossy"?)
      * Wow! New idea for a mechanical variable gear/torque converter: This one's surely a Winner!

   Ocean Wave Power Project - Revival?
      * Ratchet wrenches plus a lawn mower motor for a generator could make for a mechanically much improved "proof of concept" wave power unit, resolving the worst problems with the previous unit and likely to actually work. (...and just when, exactly, will I find time for this?)

   Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
      * A missing step found: once made, the coils need to be heated to about 450ºC and cooled slowly,
         to anneal them, which forms the microcrystals/nanocrystals in the amorphous glassy substrate.
      * Sources? Is it possible to actually just BUY these things in strips?

   Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report
      * February Battery Experiments
      * Ni-Mn/alkaline... with the perchlorate chemie not performing as expected, should I aim simply for superior alkaline batteries for now instead?

    The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Renewal Project February report
      * Sodium Sulfate becomes unavailable at Pharmacies
      * So I've ordered 30Kg from Toronto

TE News #24  -  February 1st 2010

   January in Brief (summary)

   Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive System Project Detailed Report
      * Permanent magnet versus induction motors note
      * Axles, hubs, bearings
      * (Electric Heater - no report - the month of 'Jan' was too warm to think about heating!)

   Mechanical Torque Converter Project Detailed Report
      * Modifications, more tests show modified problems
      * New configuration: reverse the drum and inertia plate, get inertia plate onto the axle to steady it.
      * A promising looking 1660 design?
      * Best Rotor Drum

   Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
      * No activity - no report

   Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report

      * The short version - Found: what looks like the Holy Grail of battery research. 2500 W-H/Kg chemistry.
      * The long version - Study of KCl/KClO4 and then LaCl3/La(ClO4)3 as battery electrolyte/electrode material

    The Lead-Acid/Sodium Sulfate Battery Renewal Project January report
      * Glued-on Lids: How and Why the Battery Companies Are Likely to Try to Prevent People From Improving Batteries
      * Further battery renewal tests.
      * Sodium sulfate chemie: the likely cleaning reaction.
      * The missing link in battery renewal found?: Deep cycling after adding the sodium sulfate.
      * Instructions update for treating a battery.

TE News #23 covering December 2009

December in Brief (summary)

Biodiesel Fuel & "Politics"

Electric Hubcap
tm Car Drive System Project Detailed Report

     * December Trials.
     * Sluggish motor starting & PWM frequency
     * Better disconnect circuit breaker / switch (BSS4007 or BSS4048)
     * Better EV Heater: 200-400-600-800-1000-1200 Watts with a revised 120 V fan heater.
          (Long story short: use its heating elements with a 24VDC computer fan,
          DP on-off-on switch, and make a new housing to fit.)
     * Sodium Silicate "Water Glass" coil casting.

Mechanical Torque Converter Project Detailed Report
     * Unsuccessful car tests December 6th & 22nd show play and vibration in mechanism are bad things.
     * "Torque Multiplier" is evidently the name of a type of power tool, so I'm going back to "Torque Converter".

TE News #22 covering November 2009

        November in Brief
"Big Oil" - the World's Largest Organized Crime Ring?

Electric Hubcap
tm Car Drive System Project Detailed Report
* New topic heading to cover the EH system as a whole.
* Hall Effect Magnetic Switches:
    - easier to install than optical sensors system
    - make EH motors even easier to build.
* EV Heater: 12V Electric Heaters in Series [3 for 36V]: a simple & cheap "off the shelf" solution.
* Vehicle Handling; Motor weight and suspension: I've had the key all along?
* Supermagnet "Fan Blade" Choices.

Mechanical and-or Magnetic Torque Multiplier Project Detailed Report
* New name: Torque Multiplier - is to differentiate it from worthless hydraulic crap.
* Parts selection and reselection: homing in on a workable unit.
* Unit ready to test about November 22nd, but motor system changes delay testing.
* Successful Bench Tests November 30th - seems to provide plenty of force to propel a car.

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
* No Activity - no report

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report
* Poggendorff cell.
* Oxalic Acid Battery - It works! Potential for substantially higher energy density than lead-sulfuric acid because 3 to 4 x lighter electrode metals can be used.
* Acetic Acid (Vinegar) Battery?

The Lead-Acid Battery Project Progress Report
* Trade Secret: Evidence that battery manufacturer secretly adds alum salt - but only to its "top of the line" batteries. A cunning patent: even in the battery factory no one knows about it!
* Alum's battery life extending effects were already well known during world war two - except to the public.
* Automating the Experiments.
* Better instructions for treating a battery.

TE News #21 covering October 2009

        October in Brief
Department of Inventive Progress: The government's missing organ

Directions for Softening Epoxy Glue (eg, to Remove Magnets from Rotors)

Electric Hubcap
tm Car Drive Motor and Controller Project Detailed Report
* a mistaken diagnosis - Hall effect sensors - New MC chip (sigh!)

Magnetic Mechanical Torque Converter Project Report
* Conceptual Adaptation and Design Growth
* A test indicates it'll work better without magnets, so it becomes purely "mechanical"!
* Works by inertias and masses - reminiscent of mechanical clock escapements.
* First Mechanical Torque Converter proves itself vastly superior to geared transmissions in every respect, doubles gas mileage. Adoption is sabotaged by GM duplicity, and it's rejected by the automakers -- IN 1923!

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
* No Activity - no report

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report

* Design Considerations: Dimensions
* ABS battery case forming tool #3.
* At Last: The awesomely powerful flat-plate electrode compactor mega-press!
* Squashed stainless steel mesh to replace "perforated nickel sheet" for pocket electrodes?
* Veegum, CMC gum, xanthan gum for electrode briquettes
* Semipermeable Membranes
* More on Manganese; Certain Rare Earths

The Lead-Acid Battery Project Progress Report
* Overview
* The plate cleaning reactions figured out...(?)
* October Quantifying Experiments
* Better Instructions for Renewing a lead-acid battery with sodium sulfate salt.
* More & long term testing is needed to get hard figures & statistics.

TE News #20 - October 4th 2009

        September in Brief (summary)
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project Detailed Report
* The motor and controller are both finished and the designs are on the web.
* Motor Controller Making Manual updated - schematics.
* Regenerative braking ideas

Magnetic Torque Converter Project Report
* Project Recap
* Painfully slow progress towards a prototype - changing design ideas.
* Preliminary test... It Runs!

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
* Cores with "Barium Titanate" - didn't work

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report

* Good Cellophane - YAY!
* Ion passing electrode separator sheet.
* Battery cases: Squaring round ABS tubes in the kitchen oven
* Battery making idea: start with charged electrode chemicals instead of discharged.
* Manganese negative electrode: Higher energy density and voltage than MH, Zn, Cd, Fe...
* Making Lithium Hydroxide electrolyte additive.

Lead-Acid Battery Project Detailed Report
* Tried epsom salt - yuk!
* Tried sodium sulfate - Higher voltage: ? Test battery is crap - leaks!
* Made sodium sulfate by adding sodium hydroxide to the battery's own sulfuric acid. (Cheaper!)
* pH Test Paper Famine!
* Tentative Instructions for "Renewing" a lead-acid battery with sodium sulfate salt or sodium hydroxide.

TE News #19  -  September 4th 2009

        August in Brief (summary)
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project Detailed Report
* A similar Hybridizing Concept!

Magnetic Torque Converter Project Report
* A completely new design. Still not built.

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Detailed Report
* Some test cores made and tested - no positive results yet.

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report

* Lanthanum-Manganese battery.
* Sealed Cases, Pressurized Batteries, Higher Voltages: the continuing saga.
* Cellophane separator sheets: they're MADE broken! "Standard" plastic coatings clog cellophane's microporous structure.
* "Lead-Acid" batteries -- Switch the electrolyte; ditch the dangerous acid: 50% more energy per charge, triple the life span! Restore "worn out" batteries to better than "like new"! [Correction: some of these claims, copied fresh off the web at the time, are not true. In particular, the electrolyte becomes acidic and dangerous regardless of what's put in, and performance may be restored to "like new", but it's not "better than". Please see newsletter #21 for the real story and battery renewal instructions.]
Construction Manuals for making your own:
* Electric Hubcap Motor
* Turquoise Motor Controller


TE News #18 - August 3rd 2009

July in Brief (summary)
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project Detailed Report
* Oh boy, Motor Wire!
* Compact high current pugs & sockets: they exist! (Anderson "Power Pole" connectors)
* Improved Wiring/Equipment Box with New Motor Controller: Made, Tested, Working.
* Instructions for new motor controller/equipment box are now on line!

Magnetic Torque Converter Project
* A quick test

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Started
* Some test cores made and tested - no positive results yet.

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report
* Manganese negative electrode - fell apart.

TE News #17 - July 2nd 2009


June in Brief (summary)
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project Detailed Report
* Another Geared Wheel Motor - This motor looks very similar to Electric Hubcap
* New Motor Controller logic - circuit & PCB design is done, have circuit boards, ready to test
* Wiring Boxes with Motor Controllers: merchandisable product?

Magnetic Torque Converter Project
* Theory of operation defined

Microcrystalline Ceramic Motor Coil Cores Project Started
* Materials Purchased to make test cores for firing in a pottery kiln
* Test procedure worked out: Find the distance from which a "standard" size coil will make a magnet jump!

Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report

* My paper "Some Principles of Aqueous Electrolyte Battery Design" is now on the web.
* A practical battery electrode design
* Made a working battery (at last!)
* Electrodes with monel powder appear to be a BIG advance to the state of the art!

TE News #16  -  June 3rd 2009

May in Brief (summary)
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Torque Converter first test, spins car wheel May 20th. Movie.
* Torque Converter Induction Rotor design: An axial flux adaptation of NEMA "Type D"?
* EH Power (oops): consumes max 5400 W (7.2 HP)... Not 3600 W (4.8 HP).
* Copper Loss Calculations: inefficiencies at high currents. Better at lower drives.
* How Much Electric Power is Required?: a 4 HP, 50 Km/Hr, converted car.
* Reconfigured motor free-spins: lower current draw when not turning car wheel.
* Optical Commutator and simplified motor controller with MC33033 chip.
* Micro-Ferrite Ceramic Motor Coil Cores with Niobium?
Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Nickel - Iron battery experiment
* Some Battery Design Principles

A Great Electric Generator?
* It looks like the common lawn mower motor is the fabulous cheapo DC generator everybody wants but can't find for windplants, micro-hydro, etc.

Bipolar Division of Labour?

TE News #15
May 3rd 2009

April in Brief (summary)
* Preliminary manual for making Electric Hubcap/PMSM Motor Controller/Wiring Box is now on line.
* Electric Hubcaptm: runs well, but still doesn't have quite enough torque. Not to worry...
* Compact Magnetic Torque Converter should solve the problem.
* Entered Motor project in New Ventures BC awards competition
* Turquoise Energy Ltd. Gains Business Partner?
Electric Hubcaptm Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Timing adjustment experiment shows best timing to be where I originally figured it should be.
* "Thin-line" plug & socket for heavy motor wires.
* Magnetic Torque Converter: torque leverage without gears.
* Car turn signal lights wiring: Too simple!
* Motor Controller Circuit Improvements
* Ignition Switch Power Relay - found one at last
Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Great glue found for battery cases: model airplane dope!

TE News #14 -  April 3rd 2009
March in Brief (summary)
* Much work on web site - more to do.
* Icy weather impedes car/outdoor work.
* First driving attempt ("Production Prototype" motor): Motor moves car but is not quite yet fit for street.
Competition !?!
* "TheWheel": electrically similar wheel motor makes many performance claims very similar to Electric Hubcap.
* they are even more optimistic about average direct-drive PMSM energy savings (50%) than my estimates (33%).
* bulkier, heavier, costlier & can't retrofit existing cars
* Their large model is running ultra-efficient hybrid busses.
Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* Calculations show current phase lag is a non-issue for EH 3-phase power timing.
* Evolving designs of terminal blocks for heavy wires.
* Slow, steady progess on small details/problems during March.
* First moves car March 26th.
* After all my figuring... timing adjustment seems needed.
Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
* A problem identified: cellophane needs chemical surface treatment for use as electrode separator sheet.
Electric Hubcap Motor Making Course/Workshop
* Hybridize your car (or other motor project).
* Workshop cost re-examined: $2750 all inclusive?
Innovative Product Developers Assoc.
* Meeting: Sunday, April 26th 2009, 1:30 PM, 820 Dunsmuir Rd, RSVP, 384 2626 (there's no article, just this notice.)

TE News #13  -  March 2nd 2009
February in Brief (overview... summary... the short version!)

INVITATION to Inventors and Innovative Product Developers
 * Owing to the absence of support for innovative product
   development in Canada & BC, we hope to create a
   professional innovators' association.
 * Exploratory First Meeting Sunday March 15th, 1:30 PM

Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
 * New motor spins wheel, tests look good.
 * But lack of funds eventuates in further delay of road testing.

Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
 * Several electrodes sent to U of Stockholm for evaluation

TE News #12  -  February 9 2009

    January in Brief (overview... summary... the short version!)
        * or, this TOC is the Super Short version...

    Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report

        * Electric Hubcaptm is (today) ready to test

    Turquoise Battery Project, Very Longwinded Detailed Report

        * Interesting Chemistries Emerge
        * University Battery Researcher to run performance tests and evaluate my Electrodes

TE News #11  -  January 2nd 2009
    December in Brief (overview... summary... the short version!)
        * or, this TOC is the Super Short version...
        * December was a slow month for the energy projects.

    Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
        * Cold weather, flu delays production model prototype tests.

    Turquoise Battery Project, Longwinded Detailed Report
        * To get much lower resistance, more current: compress powders.
           (nothing established battery makers didn't already know!)
    Electric Hubcap Motor Making Course/Workshop: Hybridize your car (or other relevant motor project)!
        * Workshops are on hold pending motor road tests - (Hopefully coming this spring)

TE News #10 - December 3rd 2008
    November in Brief
        (overview... summary... the short version!)
        * or, this TOC is the Super Short version...

   "Secret" Federal SDTC Program: Filling the Funding Gap!

        * Funding for developing clean technologies

    Electric Hubcap Motor Making Course/Workshop: Hybridize your car (or other relevant motor project)!

        * Cheaper, easier with only two motors needed?
        * starts, um... Feb? March?

    Electric Hubcap Motor "Kit": Marketing Idea

        * Sell manuals and parts

    Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Very Longwinded Detailed Report

        * Double power "production model" motor
            - probably just 2 motors needed per car instead of 4!
            - made from off-the-shelf automotive parts!

    Turquoise Battery Project, Very Longwinded Detailed Report

        * Effective Sealed Battery Housings:
            - plumbing pipes & rubber test tube stoppers!
        * Convoluted battery chemistry... experiments continue.
        * Recent patents disclose battery work paralleling mine.

 TE news #9 - November 1 2008
The Month in Brief (overview... summary... the short version!)
   Or, here's the Super Short version:
    * Electric Hubcap Motor Moves Car!
    * Batteries start to Charge!
    * Promising New Battery Chemicals!
BC's Goals? - an editorial comment
Proposed First Electric Hubcap Motor Making Class/Workshop
Electric Hubcap Car Drive Project, Long, Detailed Report
Turquoise Battery Project, Long, Detailed Report

TE News #8 - October 6 2008
The Month in Brief
** Classes/Workshops: Battery & Electric Hubcap Motor Making
Electric Hubcap Project Detailed Report
    rewiring; tests; new motor controller; tests
Turquoise Battery Project Detailed Report
    a bit of progress; Lead-acid: 1/4 cost of gasoline

TE News #7 - Sept 3 2008
Electric Hubcaptm Car Motor: a recap
Rerevised Motor Controller - the "Opto-electronic commutator"
Submarine Motors Project?
Who Killed the Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery? - and a battery comparison

TE news #6 - August 4 2008
Electric Hubcaptm Drive Motor Changes - cooling & mounting mods
Revised Turquoise Motor Controller
Cross Section of the Turquoise Batterytm (as currently envisioned)

TE news #5 - July 5 2008

Electric HubcapTM Drive Motor - successful spin & car move tests
Turquoise Motor Controller - successful motor driving tests
Turquoise BatteryTM
Car Conversion Economics
How is that Possible?

TE news #4 - June 6 2008

Technology Implementation Editorial [& democratic company ideas]
The Electric HubcapTM Drive Motor
Turquoise Motor Controller
Turquoise BatteryTM
Site C Peace River Hydro versus Vancouver Island Wave Power

TE news #3 - May 1 2008

Technology Exploitation
The Electric HubcapTM Drive Motor
Turquoise Motor Controller
Turquoise BatteryTM
The Wave Power Machine

TE news #2 - April 6 2008

The Electric HubcapTM Electric Car Motor

The Turquoise Motor Controller

Turquoise Battery Ni-MH car battery

Commercialization of the Products

TE news #1 - March 6 2008

Wave Power


Batteries [?]


Victoria BC